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Free Will Under the Light of the Quran : (Free Will In Islam), Volume 1: (Free Will In Islam)

By Tosun, Ender

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Book Id: WPLBN0100302735
Format Type: PDF (eBook)
File Size: 3.74 MB.
Reproduction Date: 6/19/2020

Title: Free Will Under the Light of the Quran : (Free Will In Islam), Volume 1: (Free Will In Islam)  
Author: Tosun, Ender
Volume: Volume 1
Language: English
Subject: Non Fiction, Religion, Free Will
Collections: Philosophy, Authors Community
Historic
Publication Date:
2020
Publisher: Ender Tosun
Member Page: Ender Tosun

Citation

APA MLA Chicago

Tosun, E. (2020). Free Will Under the Light of the Quran : (Free Will In Islam), Volume 1. Retrieved from http://worldlibrary.in/


Description
This free and very detailed e-book explains free will in Islam and according to the Quran. It proves free will experimentally. It answers all key questions including free will and divine knowledge (omniscience).

Summary
In this book, I tried to address important issues that relate to free will power in accordance with the Quranic teaching. An important aspect of the free will power is its irreducibility to other things and the irreducibility of the agent who exercises free will power. The irreducible and distinct agent interacts with his parts and other things. Hence, within a range, he can overcome the effects of other factors, and he can determine one of the two alternatives as the one to be acted upon. Within that range, there is nothing which can coercively prevent him from willing the other alternative. To demonstrate the free will power and its effectiveness, I followed two main paths: (1) The refutation of reductionism, determinism, and indeterminism: I presented numerous empirical and logical arguments which show beyond doubt that these are false. This is very important, because I am convinced that the apparent paradox about free will arises because of false and unquestioned presuppositions about the truth of those isms. Their refutation is possible thanks to the alternative system of Islam related to the ontological reality and its basis. Without such a basis, refuting them might left many things up in the air. (2) Free will power negation experiments and brain observation experiments: I designed certain empirical, thought, and combined experiments which show that the free will power is distinctly effective. I addressed systematically the key points that relate to the free will power such as, the agent, his transcendence, unity, his sub-modules, their interactions, the soul, its interaction with the spatiotemporal, consciousness, the will mechanism, Libet experiments, space, time, truth, knowledge, reasoning power, responsibility, hereafter, God… Of course, I gave a definition of the free will power in accordance with the Quranic teaching which lies at the basis of this work. The only thing that free will power considers about the sets of alternatives is that they are distinguishable from each other. This point is in harmony with the distinct and holistic reality of the agent. But as the essence of the agent who exercises free will power bears the consequences of the wills, he has to exercise it in harmony with his other powers. Hence, again with his free will power, this essence has to navigate through his knowledge resources, conscious experiences, get the feedback of his reasoning power, and so on. He has to act in accordance with his ought to be truths (OTBT) as much as possible. OTBT means what ought to be optimally and objectively within the capacity of the agent under the present circumstances. However, OTBT is not a coercive cause upon the agent. This works also includes the divine omniscience and free will paradox, and addresses it perfectly under the light of the Quran. In this context, the destiny, and its implications are also addressed. The conclusion is clear: We have our distinct existence as agents and human beings; and we have our sovereign free will power in a certain range.

Excerpt
In this book, I tried to address important issues that relate to free will power in accordance with the Quranic teaching. An important aspect of the free will power is its irreducibility to other things and the irreducibility of the agent who exercises free will power. The irreducible and distinct agent interacts with his parts and other things. Hence, within a range, he can overcome the effects of other factors, and he can determine one of the two alternatives as the one to be acted upon. Within that range, there is nothing which can coercively prevent him from willing the other alternative. To demonstrate the free will power and its effectiveness, I followed two main paths: (1) The refutation of reductionism, determinism, and indeterminism: I presented numerous empirical and logical arguments which show beyond doubt that these are false. This is very important, because I am convinced that the apparent paradox about free will arises because of false and unquestioned presuppositions about the truth of those isms. Their refutation is possible thanks to the alternative system of Islam related to the ontological reality and its basis. Without such a basis, refuting them might left many things up in the air. (2) Free will power negation experiments and brain observation experiments: I designed certain empirical, thought, and combined experiments which show that the free will power is distinctly effective. I addressed systematically the key points that relate to the free will power such as, the agent, his transcendence, unity, his sub-modules, their interactions, the soul, its interaction with the spatiotemporal, consciousness, the will mechanism, Libet experiments, space, time, truth, knowledge, reasoning power, responsibility, hereafter, God… Of course, I gave a definition of the free will power in accordance with the Quranic teaching which lies at the basis of this work. The only thing that free will power considers about the sets of alternatives is that they are distinguishable from each other. This point is in harmony with the distinct and holistic reality of the agent. But as the essence of the agent who exercises free will power bears the consequences of the wills, he has to exercise it in harmony with his other powers. Hence, again with his free will power, this essence has to navigate through his knowledge resources, conscious experiences, get the feedback of his reasoning power, and so on. He has to act in accordance with his ought to be truths (OTBT) as much as possible. OTBT means what ought to be optimally and objectively within the capacity of the agent under the present circumstances. However, OTBT is not a coercive cause upon the agent. This works also includes the divine omniscience and free will paradox, and addresses it perfectly under the light of the Quran. In this context, the destiny, and its implications are also addressed. The conclusion is clear: We have our distinct existence as agents and human beings; and we have our sovereign free will power in a certain range.

Table of Contents
Detailed Table of Contents 1 INTRODUCTION 23 1.1 SOME OF THE QUESTIONS THAT WILL BE ANSWERED IN THIS BOOK 25 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF FREE WILL IN PHILOSOPHY AND DAILY LIFE 27 1.2.1 PHILOSOPHICALLY CHALLENGING CONCEPT 30 1.2.2 AN EXTREMELY PRACTICAL CONCEPT 30 1.2.2.1 COMMERCIAL LEGISLATION AND PRACTICES 31 1.2.2.2 CRIMINOLOGY 31 1.2.2.3 RELIGION 31 1.2.2.4 BEHAVIOR 31 1.3 IMPORTANCE OF UNDERSTANDING THE QURANIC FRAMEWORK ABOUT FREE WILL 32 1.4 CAN WE KNOW THAT WE HAVE FREE WILL? 35 1.5 OUR METHOD IN THIS WORK 37 1.5.1 GENERAL METHOD 37 1.5.2 OUR METHOD AS RELATED TO THE QURANIC FRAMEWORK 40 1.5.3 BURDEN OF PROOF 41 1.5.4 REMINDERS FOR SOME READERS 43 1.6 DIFFERENT VIEWS ADOPTED BY MUSLIMS 45 2 GENERAL FRAMEWORK OF ISLAM RELATED TO FREE WILL 47 2.1 THE POSITION OF THE QURAN REGARDING FREE WILL: THE HUMAN AGENT HAS FREE WILL TO A CERTAIN EXTENT 54 2.1.1 THE QURAN CLAIMS THAT THERE IS FREE WILL 57 2.1.1.1 WHAT IS FREE WILL 59 2.1.1.2 THE CENTRAL PLACE OF FREE WILL IN ISLAM 60 2.1.1.3 THE AGENT AND THE WILL ARE REAL 64 2.1.1.4 THERE IS RESPONSIBILITY 66 2.1.1.5 NECESSITY CANCELS RESPONSIBILITY 70 2.1.1.6 MORALS ARE REAL. 71 2.1.1.7 ALLAH DOES NOT BEHAVE UNJUSTLY TO HIS SERVANTS 72 2.1.1.8 THERE IS TRUTH, AND THERE IS ERROR 73 2.1.1.9 THERE ARE INVITATIONS TO SPECIFIC ALTERNATIVES AND OPPORTUNITIES 73 2.1.1.10 TESTS AND WILLS MAKE SOME POTENTIALS ACTUAL. 74 2.1.1.11 A HUMAN BEING CAN INFLUENCE ALLAH’S WILL BY CALLING HIM TO HIS HELP. 76 2.1.1.12 ALLAH DOES NOT FORCE INTO ONE WAY 77 2.1.1.13 EVEN THE MESSENGERS GUIDED BY ALLAH HAD THE POSSIBILITY TO WILL WRONG THINGS. 78 2.1.1.14 THERE ARE THE MEANS TO FIND AND TO BE ON THE RIGHT PATH, AND THERE IS NO GENERAL COERCIVE MISLEADING CAUSE. 83 2.1.2 THE HUMAN WILL IS SURROUNDED BY ALLAH 84 2.1.2.1 NO WILL CAN HAPPEN OUTSIDE THE PERMISSION OF ALLAH. 85 2.1.2.2 NECESSARY ELEMENTS OF GUIDANCE AND GOING ASTRAY ORIGINATE FROM ALLAH. 88 2.1.2.3 THE GUIDANCE OR MISGUIDANCE OF ALLAH IS GENERALLY BASED UPON THE WILL AND ATTITUDE OF THE HUMAN BEING. 89 2.1.2.4 IN TERMS OF ACTION, WHAT ALLAH WILLS WILL HAPPEN. 100 2.2 ATTRIBUTES OF ALLAH 101 2.2.1 ALLAH IS 103 2.2.1.1 ARGUMENT FROM CONTINGENCY, DEPENDENCE, AND NECESSITY 108 2.2.1.2 ARGUMENT FROM THE NON-EXISTENCE OF NOTHINGNESS 110 2.2.1.3 ARGUMENT FROM UNITY 114 2.2.1.4 ARGUMENT FROM FINE-TUNING 120 2.2.2 ALLAH IS ONE 123 2.2.2.1 UNITY IS BASIC 125 2.2.2.2 HOW CAN GOD BE UNDIFFERENTIATED, WHILE HE EXISTS, AND CREATES AND SUSTAINS MANY DIFFERENT THINGS? 126 2.2.3 ALLAH IS CREATOR 130 2.2.4 ALLAH HAS FULL POWER 134 2.2.5 ALLAH IS FIRST AND LAST 135 2.2.6 ALLAH WILLS AND HE IS FREE 135 2.2.7 ALLAH IS BENEFICIENT, MERCIFUL 141 2.2.8 ALLAH IS THE EVIDENT TRUTH AND THERE IS THE TRUTH. 143 2.2.9 ALLAH KNOWS ALL THINGS 145 2.2.10 ALLAH IS AWARE 145 2.2.11 IMPLICATIONS OF CREATION 147 2.2.11.1 ALLAH EXECUTES AND ESTABLISHES THE TRUTH AND ITS CONSEQUENCES. 147 2.2.11.2 ALLAH’S PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS WITH INDIVIDUALS. 153 2.3 EXISTENCE AND PHYSICAL REALITY IN ISLAM 153 2.4 ISLAMIC HOLISM 154 3 FREE WILL 156 3.1 DEFINITION OF FREE WILL 157 3.1.1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS ON THE DEFINITION OF FREE WILL 157 3.1.1.1 WILL FROM DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES 158 3.1.1.1.1 WILL AS AN ACT/ PROCESS 158 3.1.1.1.2 WILL AS A RESULT 158 3.1.1.1.3 WILL AS A POWER 159 3.1.1.2 FREE WILL = WILL 159 3.1.1.3 CAUSAL RELATIONSHIPS AND THE DEFINITION OF FREE WILL 160 3.1.1.3.1 CAUSES AND CAUSAL RELATIONSHIPS 160 3.1.1.3.1.1 COERCIVE CAUSES AND NON-COERCIVE CAUSES 160 3.1.1.3.1.2 MULTIPOTENTIAL CAUSES AND UNIPOTENTIAL CAUSES 162 3.1.1.3.1.2.1 MULTIPOTENTIAL CAUSES 163 3.1.1.3.1.2.2 UNIPOTENTIAL CAUSES 167 3.1.1.3.2 “WHAT ONE WILLS”, “MUST WILL”, AND “IS ABLE TO WILL” ARE NOT NECESSARILY EQUAL 169 3.1.1.4 A CRITICISM OF THE COMPATIBILIST DEFINITION 171 3.1.2 DEFINITION OF FREE WILL POWER 173 3.2 THE ESSENCE OF THE WILL POWER 182 3.3 LEVELS OF FREE WILL POWER 192 3.3.1 FUNDAMENTAL LEVEL 192 3.3.2 PRACTICAL LEVEL 193 3.4 ATTRIBUTES OF WILL POWER 195 3.4.1 WILL IS NOT DETERMINISTIC 195 3.4.1.1 CONTEMPORARY PARADIGM OF DETERMINISM – INDETERMINISM AND THE RELATED QURANIC TEACHING 196 3.4.1.2 DETERMINISM 200 3.4.1.2.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DETERMINISM REGARDING FREE WILL 203 3.4.1.2.2 DETERMINISM IS UNSUBSTANTIATED AND FALSE 205 3.4.1.2.2.1 FALLACIES DIRECTLY RELATED TO THE SOURCES OF DETERMINISM 206 3.4.1.2.2.1.1 STATES OF THE UNIVERSE 207 3.4.1.2.2.1.1.1 THE INITIAL STATE 207 3.4.1.2.2.1.1.2 GENERAL PROBLEMS WITH STATES 210 3.4.1.2.2.1.2 LAWS OF NATURE 211 3.4.1.2.2.1.2.1 WHO MAKES THE LAWS OF NATURE? 212 3.4.1.2.2.1.2.2 WHY ARE THERE NOT OTHER LAWS? 213 3.4.1.2.2.1.2.3 LAWS MUST HAVE TRANSCENDENT ABILITIES. 213 3.4.1.2.2.1.2.4 AT ANY TIME-SCALE, LAWS MUST CONTAIN MORE THAN ONE STATE. 215 3.4.1.2.2.1.2.5 LAWS WOULD NEED A COORDINATOR ABOVE THEM. 217 3.4.1.2.2.1.2.6 LAWS MUST HAVE DELIBERATION CAPACITY 219 3.4.1.2.2.1.2.7 LAWS CANNOT BE SELF-SUFFICIENT 221 3.4.1.2.2.1.2.8 CONTRADICTIONS CAUSED BY TIME AND LAWS AS DETERMINISTIC CAUSES 221 3.4.1.2.2.1.2.9 LAWS OF NATURE DO NOT INVALIDATE SOVEREIGN THINGS, BEINGS, OR RELATIONSHIPS. 223 3.4.1.2.2.1.2.10 FALSITY OF REDUCTIONISM AND THE EFFECTIVE REALITY OF STRUCTURES AND ENTITIES 224 3.4.1.2.2.1.2.11 INFINITE REGRESS, PROBLEM OF THE BEGINNING 226 3.4.1.2.2.1.2.12 WHY ARE THE LAWS THE WAY THEY ARE? 230 3.4.1.2.2.1.2.13 MULTIVERSE 230 3.4.1.2.2.2 DETERMINISM IS UNSUBSTANTIATED 233 3.4.1.2.2.2.1 THERE IS NO LOGICAL NECESSITY FOR DETERMINISM 233 3.4.1.2.2.2.2 DETERMINISM IS AGAINST NULL HYPOTHESIS 234 3.4.1.2.2.2.3 DETERMINISM MAKES CLAIMS ABOUT THE INACCESSIBLE 235 3.4.1.2.2.2.4 PROBLEM OF INDUCTION 237 3.4.1.2.2.2.5 UNOBTAINABLE QUALITATIVE REQUIREMENTS OF DETERMINISM 238 3.4.1.2.2.2.6 UNOBTAINABLE QUANTITATIVE REQUIREMENTS TO PROVE DETERMINISM 238 3.4.1.2.2.2.7 QUANTUM PHYSICS MAKES DETERMINISM UNPROVABLE. 239 3.4.1.2.2.2.8 IMPOSSIBILITY TO DEMONSTRATE THAT AN AGENT CANNOT WILL OTHERWISE. 239 3.4.1.2.2.3 ONE WHO CLAIMS THAT THERE IS NO FREE WILL BASED ON FULL DETERMINISM IS REFUTING THAT VERY CLAIM. 240 3.4.1.2.2.4 NEGATORS AGAINST DETERMINISM 250 3.4.1.2.2.4.1 FREE WILL POWER NEGATION 250 3.4.1.2.2.4.2 OUGHT TO BE TRUTH NEGATOR 255 3.4.1.2.2.4.3 LOGIC NEGATOR 256 3.4.1.2.2.5 INFINITE REGRESS 257 3.4.1.2.2.6 DETERMINISM ENTAILS THAT PAST AND FUTURE IS STATIC AS IN THE B THEORY OF TIME. 258 3.4.1.2.2.7 A MOMENT OF TIME CANNOT CONTAIN THE FUTURE. 260 3.4.1.2.2.8 PHYSICALIST REDUCTIONISM IS FALSE 265 3.4.1.2.2.9 QUANTUM PHYSICS DISPROVES DETERMINISM 266 3.4.1.2.2.9.1 QUANTUM PHENOMENA DISPROVE AN ALL-ENCOMPASSING SEQUENTIALITY. 267 3.4.1.2.2.9.2 QUANTUM PHYSICS IS PROBABILISTIC. 272 3.4.1.2.2.9.3 QUANTUM PHENONEMA AS A DEMONSTRATION OF NON-UNIFORMITY OF LAWS AND STRUCTURES 274 3.4.1.2.2.9.4 QUANTUM PHENOMENA UNDERMINE LOCALITY WHICH IS A BASIS OF DETERMINISM. 277 3.4.1.2.2.10 DETERMINISM IS INCONSISTENT WITH DAILY LIFE EXPERIENCES. 278 3.4.1.2.2.10.1 CONTRADICTION AND INCONSISTENCY OF THE DENIER OF FREE WILL IN TERMS OF RESPONSIBILITY 279 3.4.1.2.2.10.2 DETERMINIST EXPERIENCES FREE WILL POWER WHEN HE PROPOSES REHABILITATION AS THE ONLY REACTION AGAINST CRIMES 283 3.4.1.2.2.10.3 THE REHABILITATED WILL ASK FOR COMPENSATION, AND THE PRAISED ONES WILL HAVE TO RETURN THEIR BENEFITS. 284 3.4.1.2.2.11 WITHOUT WILL POWERED EXISTENCE, NOTHING CAN BE DETERMINISTIC. 286 3.4.1.2.2.12 WHAT DETERMINES EVENTS ARE NOT PAST EVENTS, BUT THE DISPOSITION OF THINGS. 287 3.4.1.2.2.13 THERE ARE THINGS BEYOND THE PHYSICAL PATTERNS SUCH AS LOGICAL LAWS AND TRANSCENDENCE. 289 3.4.1.2.2.14 MINIMUM COMPLEXITY OF ELEMENTARY WHOLES NECESSARY FOR DETERMINISM CANNOT BE MET. 291 3.4.1.2.2.15 LOGICAL DETERMINISM IS FALSE. 300 3.4.1.3 COMPATIBILISM 300 3.4.2 WILL AND INDETERMINISM 302 3.4.2.1 DEFINITION OF INDETERMINISM, RANDOMNESS, AND UNCERTAINTY 303 3.4.2.2 IMPLICATIONS OF INDETERMINISM REGARDING FREE WILL POWER 304 3.4.2.2.1 INDETERMINISM IS NOT A SOURCE OR CAUSE OF FREE WILL POWER. 304 3.4.2.2.2 INDETERMINISM IS NOT NECESSARILY AN ARGUMENT AGAINST FREE WILL. 305 3.4.2.2.3 INDETERMINISM IS PART OF A FALSE DICHOTOMY. 306 3.4.2.2.4 A MULTIPOTENTIAL CAUSE WILL PRODUCE EVENTS OR THINGS WHICH LOOK INDETERMINISTIC. 306 3.4.2.3 THERE IS NO EVIDENCE FOR INDETERMINISM. 307 3.4.2.3.1 THE ONE WHO CLAIMS THAT THINGS ARE RANDOM UNDERMINES HIS OWN REASONABILITY. 308 3.4.2.3.2 THE ONE WHO CLAIMS UNCERTAINTY HAS THE BURDEN OF PROOF. 308 3.4.2.3.3 QUANTUM PHYSICS DEMONSTRATES THAT INDETERMINISM IS UNPROVABLE. 309 3.4.2.3.4 ANY WILL CANNOT BE DEMONSTRATED TO BE BASED ON INDETERMINISTIC PROCESSES. 310 3.4.2.4 INDETERMINISM IS FALSE 311 3.4.2.4.1 NEGATION TESTS 311 3.4.2.4.2 THERE CANNOT BE RANDOM EVENTS. 311 3.4.2.4.3 THE POINTS AGAINST DETERMINISM ARE APPLICABLE FOR INDETERMINISM AS WELL. 312 3.4.3 WILL IS AN IRREDUCIBLE POWER. 313 3.4.4 WILL POWER IS NOT FULLY COERCED/ FORCED. 313 3.4.4.1 TYPES OF LIMITATIONS 318 3.4.4.2 SYSTEM OF THE LIMITATIONS 320 3.4.4.3 LIMITATIONS ON FREE WILL AND THE CONTEXT 321 3.4.4.4 SEMANTICS UNDERLYING THIS BOOK AND THE LIMITATIONS OF FREE WILL 322 3.4.4.5 LIMITATIONS DO NOT ALWAYS MEAN THAT THERE IS NECESSARILY TENSION WITH CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES 322 3.4.4.6 SOME LIMITATIONS ON THE FREE WILL POWER MAY BE USEFUL OR NECESSARY. 323 3.4.4.7 WITHIN THE RANGE OF RESPONSIBILITY THERE IS FULL FREEDOM. 323 3.4.4.8 ALTERNATIVES 325 3.4.4.9 IMPLICATIONS OF RECOGNIZING THE BOUNDARIES OF FREE WILL 325 3.4.5 THE WILL POWER INTERACTS WITH THE UNIVERSE. 325 3.4.6 WILL IS A SOVEREIGN POWER. 326 3.4.7 WILL IS A TRANSCENDENT POWER. 343 3.4.8 WILL IS A DISTINCT POWER. 344 3.4.9 WILL POWER IS UNITARY. 346 3.4.10 WILL POWER MAY BE VERY EFFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT. 346 3.4.11 LOCATION OF THE WILL POWER 351 3.4.11.1 THE CONCEPT OF LOCATION IN RESPECT TO WILL POWER 351 3.4.11.2 CAN WE DETERMINE A PART OF THE BRAIN AS THE LOCATION OF THE WILL POWER? 356 3.4.12 FREE WILL POWER CAN BE PROVEN EXPERIMENTALLY. 359 3.4.12.1 EXPERIMENTS AND PROOFS 359 3.4.12.1.1 WILL POWER NEGATION EXPERIMENTS ASSUMING A DETERMINISTIC UNIVERSE 364 3.4.12.1.1.1 SIMPLE NEGATION EXPERIMENT: NEGATING THE ALTERNATIVE THAT MUST BE WILLED ACCORDING TO DETERMINISM 365 3.4.12.1.1.1.1 INTRODUCTION 365 3.4.12.1.1.1.2 FREE WILL POWER NEGATION EXPERIMENT (FWPNE) 367 3.4.12.1.1.1.3 ANALYSIS 377 3.4.12.1.1.2 WILL POWER NEGATION EXPERIMENT ASSUMING AN INDETERMINISTIC UNIVERSE 393 3.4.12.1.2 EXPERIMENT ON REARRANGING THE WILLING BRAIN STRUCTURE 398 3.4.12.2 SOME KEY POINTS ABOUT THE EXPERIMENTS AND PROOFS 403 3.4.12.2.1 EXPERIMENTS ARE NOT THE ONLY PROOFS FOR FREE WILL 403 3.4.12.2.2 MECHANICS IN THE TESTS 403 3.5 PRODUCER OF THE WILL: THE AGENT 404 3.5.1 THE CONCEPTS RELATED TO THE AGENT IN THE QURAN REGARDING FREE WILL 405 3.5.1.1 AGENT (NAFS) 405 3.5.1.1.1 NAFS MEANING “THE PERSON” 405 3.5.1.1.2 NAFS MEANING THE ESSENCE/ THE SOUL OF THE PERSON 406 3.5.1.1.2.1 DISTINCTNESS OF THE SOUL 413 3.5.1.1.2.2 ISLAM IS NOT DUALIST. 416 3.5.1.1.2.2.1 THERE IS NO REASON TO SEPARATE THE MENTAL AND THE PHYSICAL. 417 3.5.1.1.2.2.2 PHYSICAL AND MENTAL PROPERTIES ARE NOT SEPARABLE. 419 3.5.1.1.2.2.3 THE PHYSICAL AND THE MENTAL ARE CREATED AND SUSTAINED BY ALLAH. 420 3.5.1.1.2.2.4 THE PHYSICAL HAS MENTAL PROPERTIES. 422 3.5.1.1.2.2.5 SOME MENTAL PROPERTIES NEED THE PHYSICAL. 426 3.5.1.1.2.2.6 ALLAH DOES NOT HAVE A SEPARABLE SUBSTANCE. 427 3.5.1.1.2.3 OTHER SOUL-LIKE THINGS 428 3.5.1.2 MODULES OF THE AGENT RELATED TO THE FREE WILL POWER 434 3.5.1.2.1 HEART (QALB) 435 3.5.1.2.2 HEART (FUAD) 440 3.5.1.2.3 BREAST/ CHEST (SADR) 443 3.5.1.2.4 LUBB 446 3.5.1.2.5 BRAIN 447 3.5.1.2.6 SPIRIT 448 3.5.2 THE WHOLES 448 3.5.3 THE SOVEREIGN WHOLES AND THEIR ESSENCES 449 3.5.3.1 THE UNITY OF THE ESSENCE AND ITS DIFFERENTIATIONS 458 3.5.3.2 HOW DO ESSENCES INTERACT WITH THE PHYSICAL? 464 3.5.4 HUMAN BEINGS AS SOVEREIGN WHOLES 466 3.5.4.1 WHOLENESS OF THE HUMAN BEING THROUGH TIME 469 3.5.4.2 THE WHOLENESS OF THE AGENT THROUGH SPACE 471 3.5.5 NATURE OF THE HUMAN BEING WHICH IS COMMON WITH OTHER BEINGS 471 3.5.6 FEATURES OF THE HUMAN BEING AS AN AGENT WITH THE WILL POWER 483 3.5.6.1 REALITY AND EFFECTIVENESS 484 3.5.6.2 UNITY 487 3.5.6.3 SOVEREIGNTY 487 3.5.6.4 IRREDUCIBILITY TO THE PHYSICAL 490 3.5.6.4.1 REDUCTIONISM 493 3.5.6.4.2 REDUCTIONISM IS UNSUBSTANTIATED AND FALSE. 496 3.5.6.4.2.1 REDUCTIONISM IS UNSUBSTANTIATED. 498 3.5.6.4.2.2 TOP-DOWN CAUSATION IS AS TRUE AS DOWN-TOP CAUSATION. 499 3.5.6.4.2.3 REALITY OF NON-SPATIO-TEMPORAL CONCEPTS AND CONSIDERATIONS 502 3.5.6.4.2.4 INFINITE REGRESS PROBLEM RELATED TO EXTERNAL THINGS 504 3.5.6.4.2.5 CONSCIOUSNESS AS AN EVIDENCE OF IRREDUCIBILITY 504 3.5.6.4.2.6 PHYSICALISM IS FALSE. 505 3.5.6.4.2.6.1 WE CONCEIVE THE PHYSICAL ONLY THROUGH MIND. 514 3.5.6.4.2.6.2 FOUNDATIONS OF THE PHYSICAL ARE MIND-LIKE. 515 3.5.6.4.2.6.3 THE AGENT, HIS CONSCIOUSNESS, AND THE MENTAL ARE REAL. 521 3.5.6.4.2.6.4 SPACE IS NOT THE ULTIMATELY FUNDAMENTAL. 522 3.5.6.4.2.6.5 TIME IS NOT THE ULTIMATELY FUNDAMENTAL. 529 3.5.6.4.2.6.6 THE ARGUMENTS AGAINST DETERMINISM AND INDETERMINISM ARE APPLICABLE AGAINST PHYSICALISM. 537 3.5.6.4.2.7 ONE WHO CLAIMS THAT THERE IS NO FREE WILL BASED ON REDUCTIVE PHYSICALISM REFUTES THAT VERY CLAIM. 537 3.5.6.4.2.8 SELF-SUFFICIENT SPATIOTEMPORAL BOTTOM ELEMENT IS AN INCOHERENT CONCEPT. 540 3.5.6.4.2.8.1 PROBLEMS WITH A STRUCTURED SBE 542 3.5.6.4.2.8.2 THE SBES MUST BE IMPOSSIBLY SOPHISTICATED. 545 3.5.6.4.2.8.3 +THE IMPOSSIBLE SIMPLICITY OF ALLEGED SBES 546 3.5.6.4.2.8.4 SBES WOULD BE FREE. 547 3.5.6.4.2.8.5 PROBLEM OF INFINITE REGRESS WITH SBES 547 3.5.6.4.2.8.6 SBES WOULD BE SUBJECT TO CHANGE. 548 3.5.6.4.2.8.7 SBES ARE NOT NECESSARY. 549 3.5.6.4.2.8.8 SBES WOULD BE RELATIVE AND CIRCULAR. 550 3.5.6.4.2.8.9 SBES ARE NOT VERIFIABLE. 550 3.5.6.4.2.8.10 SBES CANNOT EXPLAIN THE UNITARY BEINGS AND ATTRIBUTES. 551 3.5.6.4.2.8.11 SBES WOULD BE DEFINED BY HIGHER LEVEL FEATURES IN ANY CASE. 551 3.5.6.4.2.9 WITHOUT FREEDOM THERE CAN BE NO REDUCTIONISM. 552 3.5.6.4.2.10 IMPOSSIBILITY OF BILLIONS OF CORRELATIONS WITHIN ILLUSIONS, REAL EVENTS, AND STRUCTURES 553 3.5.6.4.2.11 PARTS OF THE AGENT CHANGE, WHILE HIS IDENTITY REMAINS STABLE. 554 3.5.6.4.2.12 SYSTEMATIC DISCONTINUITIES 555 3.5.6.4.2.13 PHYSICALIST REDUCTIONISM UNDERMINES ITSELF. 556 3.5.6.4.2.14 BOTH DETERMINISM AND INDETERMINISM ARE FALSE. 557 3.5.6.4.2.15 QUANTUM PHYSICS 558 3.5.6.4.3 ISLAMIC HOLISM AND THE WHOLE OF THE AGENT 558 3.5.6.4.3.1 ISLAMIC HOLISM 558 3.5.6.4.3.2 NON-REDUCTIVE PHYSICALISM 561 3.5.6.4.3.3 HOW DOES ISLAMIC HOLISM WORK? 564 3.5.6.4.4 REDUCTIONISM AND FREE WILL POWER 565 3.5.6.5 VULNERABILITY OF THE AGENT, AND THE STATES TO BE AVOIDED 565 3.5.6.6 BEING SUBJECT TO CHALLENGES 568 3.5.6.7 TRANSCENDENCE 570 3.5.6.8 CAPACITY 582 3.5.6.9 MOBILITY BETWEEN STATES AND DEGREES 582 3.6 INPUTS OF FREE WILL 592 3.6.1 CONSCIOUS EXPERIENCE 600 3.6.1.1 CONSCIOUSNESS IS REAL AND EFFECTIVE 603 3.6.1.2 ASSIGNMENT OF CONSCIOUSNESS TO THINGS 606 3.6.1.3 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE SPATIOTEMPORAL 608 3.6.1.4 TRANSCENDENCE OF CONSCIOUSNESS THROUGH SPACE 614 3.6.1.5 TRANSCENDENCE OF CONSCIOUSNESS THROUGH TIME 615 3.6.1.6 CONSCIOUSNESS HAS UNITY. 617 3.6.1.6.1 SPLIT-BRAIN PATIENTS 617 3.6.1.6.2 CONSCIOUSNESS IN DREAMS 618 3.6.1.6.3 UNITY OF CONSCIOUSNESS AND DIFFERENTIATION 618 3.6.1.7 CONSCIOUSNESS AND RESPONSIBILITY 623 3.6.1.8 CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE FREEDOM OF WILL 623 3.6.1.8.1 IS CONSCIOUSNESS NECESSARY FOR THE FREE WILL POWER? 623 3.6.1.8.2 LIBET EXPERIMENTS AND FOLLOW-UP EXPERIMENTS 628 3.6.1.8.2.1 THE EXPERIMENTS 628 3.6.1.8.2.2 INTERPRETATION OF THE EXPERIMENTS IN RESPECT TO FREE WILL 629 3.6.1.8.2.3 THE FLAWS OF THE INTERPRETATIONS OF LIBET EXPERIMENTS AGAINST FREE WILL (ILEF) 630 3.6.1.8.2.3.1 LIBET EXPERIMENTS’ DESIGN WHICH MAKES THESE EXPERIMENTS IRRELEVANT FOR THE EXISTENCE OF FREE WILL POWER 630 3.6.1.8.2.3.2 THE TEST SUBJECT IS AWARE OF THE WILLS SINCE THE BEGINNING AND BEFORE THE READINESS POTENTIALS. 633 3.6.1.8.2.3.3 LIBET EXPERIMENTS PREVENT THE TEST SUBJECT FROM USING HIS CONSCIOUSNESS. 633 3.6.1.8.2.3.4 INSUFFICIENT PRECISION 635 3.6.1.8.2.3.5 THE ABILITY TO VETO SHOWS THAT CONSCIOUSNESS IS EFFECTIVE IN WILLS. 637 3.6.1.8.2.3.6 CONSCIOUS EXPERIENCE IN THE FORM OF MEMORY CAN INTERACT WITH THE WILL POWER. 638 3.6.2 AGENT’S OUGHT TO BE TRUTH (OTBT) 639 3.6.2.1 THE NECESSITY TO USE FREE WILL POWER TO REACH OTBT 644 3.6.2.2 OTBT AND RELATED CONCEPTS 647 3.6.2.2.1 OUGHT TO BE TRUTH 647 3.6.2.2.1.1 ACCESSIBLE OTBT 651 3.6.2.2.1.2 GENERAL OTBTS 651 3.6.2.2.2 OTBT AND THE NATURE OF THE AGENT 656 3.6.2.2.3 OUGHT NOT TO BE TRUTH 656 3.6.2.2.4 OUGHT TO BE SUBJECTIVE STATE (OTBS) 657 3.6.2.2.5 OPTIMALITY IN OTBT 659 3.6.2.2.6 THE TRUTH 660 3.6.2.2.6.1 THE TRUTH EXISTS 664 3.6.2.2.6.2 THE IMPORTANCE AND SUPERIORITY OF TRUTH 672 3.6.2.2.6.3 THE CRITERIA TO DISTINGUISH THE TRUTH FROM THE ERROR 674 3.6.2.2.6.4 OBJECTIVE VERSUS SUBJECTIVE TRUTH 675 3.6.2.3 KEY ROLE OF OTBT REGARDING RESPONSIBILITY 676 3.6.2.4 KEY ROLE OF OTBT AS AN INPUT OF FREE WILL 679 3.6.2.4.1 NEED FOR CONTINUOUS FOCUS ON THE FUNDAMENTAL OTBTS 680 3.6.2.4.2 THE PROCESSES BETWEEN OTBT AND FREE WILL POWER 683 3.6.2.4.3 ASSESSING THE ALTERNATIVES’ RELEVANCE TO THE OTBT 686 3.6.2.4.4 ASSESSING AN ALTERNATIVE IN RESPECT TO THE OTBT 689 3.6.2.4.5 OTBT IS NOT A COERCIVE LIMITATION ON OUR FREE WILL POWER. 693 3.6.2.5 FREE WILL ASSISTED WITH TRUTH 696 3.6.2.6 ABILITY TO KNOW OR DISCOVER THE TRUTH 698 3.6.2.7 IMMISCIBILITY OF TRUTH 699 3.6.2.8 OTBT AND CONSCIOUSNESS 701 3.6.3 REASON 702 3.6.3.1 REASONING POWER IS IRREDUCIBLE. 703 3.6.3.2 REASON HAS THE UNITY AS THE COMMON BACKGROUND WITH THE EXISTENCE. 706 3.6.3.3 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONSCIOUSNESS, REASON, WILL POWER, AND RESPONSIBILITY 707 3.6.4 THE VERY BEING OF THE AGENT 709 3.6.4.1 ENHANCING THE GENERAL STRUCTURE AND OTBT 711 3.6.4.2 CONTROLLING EMOTIONS AND LOW DESIRES 711 3.6.5 ALTERNATIVES 712 3.6.6 KNOWLEDGE ABOUT OTHER THINGS 713 3.7 OUTPUTS RELATED TO THE FREE WILL POWER 717 3.7.1 THE ALTERNATIVE THAT WILL BE ACTUALIZED 717 3.7.2 ACTION BY THE AGENT 720 3.7.3 CHANGE IN THE UNIVERSE 720 3.7.4 MENTAL OUTPUTS 721 3.7.5 RESULTS AS ACHIEVED AND NOT ACHIEVED GOALS 721 3.7.6 RESPONSIBILITY, CONFIRMATION, PRAISE, REGRET, PUNISHMENT, AND REWARD 722 3.7.6.1 CONSISTENCY OF THE AGENT ABOUT THE RESPONSIBILITY 725 3.7.6.2 OWNERSHIP OF WILL AND RESPONSIBILITY 725 3.7.6.3 HEREAFTER 729 3.7.7 CHANGES FOLLOWING THE RESULTS 736 3.8 MEANS AND INFLUENCERS IN THE FORMATION OF FREE WILL 736 3.8.1 ALLAH 739 3.8.1.1 NO ACT FINALIZES WITHOUT THE APPROVAL OF ALLAH. 740 3.8.1.2 OUR WILL POWER, AND THE POWER OF ALLAH 743 3.8.1.3 ALLAH’S GUIDANCE AND MISLEADING 749 3.8.1.4 DIVINE KNOWLEDGE 752 3.8.1.4.1 ALLAH KNOWS OUR FUTURE 752 3.8.1.4.2 THE FUTURE EXISTS WITHIN THE SIGHT OF ALLAH 758 3.8.1.4.3 ALLAH’S KNOWLEDGE OF THE FUTURE DOES NOT ABORT FREE WILL 763 3.8.1.4.4 DESTINY 780 3.8.1.4.4.1 DESCRIPTION 781 3.8.1.4.4.2 THE REASON FOR DESTINY 785 3.8.1.4.4.3 THE PROCESSES OF DESTINY 788 3.8.2 ENVIRONMENT 798 3.8.3 EMOTIONS 801 4 IMPLICATIONS OF QURANIC FRAMEWORK OF FREE WILL 803 4.1 ARGUMENT FOR GOD FROM FREE WILL POWER 803 4.1.1 METHODOLOGY ABOUT PROVING GOD 803 4.1.2 ARGUMENT FOR GOD FROM THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE FREE WILL POWER 804 4.1.3 PROOF FOR GOD FROM FREE WILL POWER AND NON-EXISTENCE OF PARTIAL NOTHINGNESS 809 4.2 PERSONAL AND SOCIAL ACHIEVEMENT 809 4.3 LOGIC AND TRUTH 811 4.4 MORALS, GOOD AND EVIL 813 4.4.1 TRUTH OF MORALS 813 4.4.2 ACTING MORALLY WHILE THERE IS NO FREE WILL 815 4.4.3 SANCTIONS, MORALS, AND FREE WILL POWER 816 4.4.4 TRAINING THE FREE WILL POWER AND RELATED POWERS FOR MORALS 823 4.5 LAW & SECULAR LEGAL SYSTEMS 823 4.6 FORGIVENESS 824 4.7 STRESS MANAGEMENT 825 4.8 PROBLEM OF EVIL AND ARGUMENT FOR THE INJUSTICE OF GOD 826 4.9 PHYSICS 827 4.10 TECHNOLOGY 828 4.11 POLITICS 828 5 CONCLUSION 829 BIBLIOGRAPHY 832

 

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