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### Mathematics The category of mathematics are works on the abstract study of subjects encompassing quantity, structure, space, change, and more; it has no generally accepted definition. • ### Some Neutrosophic Algebraic Structures and Neutrosophic N-Algebrai...

##### By: Florentin Smarandache; W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

This book has seven chapters. Chapter one provides several basic notions to make this book self-contained. Chapter two introduces neutrosophic groups and neutrosophic N-groups and gives several examples. The third chapter deals with neutrosophic semigroups and neutrosophic N-semigroups, giving several interesting results. Chapter four introduces neutrosophic loops and neutrosophic N-loops. Chapter five just introduces the concept of neutrosophic groupoids and neutrosophi...

1.1 Groups, N-group and their basic Properties It is a well-known fact that groups are the only algebraic structures with a single binary operation that is mathematically so perfect that an introduction of a richer structure within it is impossible. Now we proceed on to define a group. DEFINITION 1.1.1: A non empty set of elements G is said to form a group if in G there is defined a binary operation, called the product and denoted by '•' such that

• ### Neutrosophic Interval Bialgebraic Structures

##### By: Florentin Smarandache; W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

We in this book introduce the notion of pure (mixed) neutrosophic interval bisemigroups or neutrosophic biinterval semigroups. We derive results pertaining to them. The new notion of quasi bisubsemigroups and ideals are introduced. Smarandache interval neutrosophic bisemigroups are also introduced and analysed. Also notions like neutrosophic interval bigroups and their substructures are studied in section two of this chapter. Neutrosophic interval bigroupoids and the ide...

Now we will be using these intervals and work with our results. However by the context the reader can understand whether we are working with pure neutrosophic intervals or neutrosophic of rationals or integers or reals or modulo integers. This chapter has four sections. Section one introduces neutrosophic interval bisemigroups, neutrosophic interval bigroups are introduced in section two. Section three defines biinterval neutrosophic bigroupoids. The final section gives ...

• ### Neutrosophic Bilinear Algebras and Their Generalizations

##### By: Florentin Smarandache; W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

The first chapter is introductory in nature and gives a few essential definitions and references for the reader to make use of the literature in case the reader is not thorough with the basics. The second chapter deals with different types of neutrosophic bilinear algebras and bivector spaces and proves several results analogous to linear bialgebra. In chapter three the authors introduce the notion of n-linear algebras and prove several theorems related to them. Many of ...

• ### Neutrality and Many-Valued Logics

##### By: Florentin Smarandache; Andrew Schumann

In this book, we consider various many-valued logics: standard, linear, hyperbolic, parabolic, non-Archimedean, p -adic, interval, neutrosophic, etc. We survey also results which show the tree different proof-theoretic frameworks for many-valued logics, e.g. frameworks of the following deductive calculi: Hilbert ’s style, sequent, and hypersequent. Recall that hypersequents are a natural generalization of Gentzen ’s style sequents that was introduced independently by Avr...

1.1 Neutrality concept in logic Every point of view A tends to be neutralized, diminished, balanced by Non-A. At the same time, in between A and Non-A there are infinitely many points of view Neut-A. Let’s note by A an idea, or proposition, theory, event, concept, entity, by Non-A what is not A, and by Anti-A the opposite of A. Neut-A means what is neither A nor Anti-A, i.e. neutrality is also in between the two extremes.

• ### Natural Product Xn On Matrices

##### By: Florentin Smarandache; W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

This book has eight chapters. The first chapter is introductory in nature. Polynomials with matrix coefficients are introduced in chapter two. Algebraic structures on these polynomials with matrix coefficients is defined and described in chapter three. Chapter four introduces natural product on matrices. Natural product on super matrices is introduced in chapter five. Super matrix linear algebra is introduced in chapter six. Chapter seven claims only after this notion be...

In this chapter we only indicate as reference of those the concepts we are using in this book. However the interested reader should refer them for a complete understanding of this book. In this book we define the notion of natural product in matrices so that we have a nice natural product defined on column matrices, m * n (m ≠ n) matrices. This extension is the same in case of row matrices. We make use of the notion of semigroups and Smarandache semigroups. Also the noti...

• ### N-Linear Algebra of Type 2

##### By: Florentin Smarandache; W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

This book has three chapters. In the first chapter the notion of n-vector spaces of type II are introduced. This chapter gives over 50 theorems. Chapter two introduces the notion of n-inner product vector spaces of type II, n-bilinear forms and n-linear functionals. The final chapter suggests over a hundred problems. It is important that the reader should be well versed with not only linear algebra but also n-linear algebras of type I.

In this chapter we for the first time introduce the notion of n-vector space of type II. These n-vector spaces of type II are different from the n-vector spaces of type I because the n-vector spaces of type I are defined over a field F where as the n-vector spaces of type II are defined over n-fields. Some properties enjoyed by n-vector spaces of type II cannot be enjoyed by n-vector spaces of type I. To this; we for the sake of completeness just recall the definition of...

• ### N-Linear Algebra of Type 1 and Its Applications

##### By: Florentin Smarandache; W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

This book has four chapters. The first chapter just introduces n-group which is essential for the definition of n-vector spaces and n-linear algebras of type I. Chapter two gives the notion of n-vector spaces and several related results which are analogues of the classical linear algebra theorems. In case of n-vector spaces we can define several types of linear transformations. The applications of these algebraic structures are given in Chapter 3. Chapter four gives some...

n-VECTOR SPACES OF TYPE I AND THEIR PROPERTIES In this chapter we introduce the notion of n-vector spaces and describe some of their important properties. Here we define the concept of n-vector spaces over a field which will be known as the type I n-vector spaces or n-vector spaces of type I. Several interesting properties about them are derived in this chapter. DEFINITION 2.1: A n-vector space or a n-linear space of type I (n  2)

• ### Multispace & Multistructure Neutrosophic Transdisciplinary : 100 C...

##### By: Florentin Smarandache

The fourth volume, in my book series of “Collected Papers”, includes 100 published and unpublished articles, notes, (preliminary) drafts containing just ideas to be further investigated, scientific souvenirs, scientific blogs, project proposals, small experiments, solved and unsolved problems and conjectures, updated or alternative versions of previous papers, short or long humanistic essays, letters to the editors

This short technical paper advocates a bootstrapping algorithm from which we can form a statistically reliable opinion based on limited clinically observed data, regarding whether an osteo-hyperplasia could actually be a case of Ewing’s osteosarcoma. The basic premise underlying our methodology is that a primary bone tumour, if it is indeed Ewing’s osteosarcoma, cannot increase in volume beyond some critical limit without showing metastasis. We propose a statistical meth...

• ### Introduction to N-Adaptive Fuzzy Models to Analyze Public Opinion ...

##### By: Florentin Smarandache; W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

We have used the 2-adaptive fuzzy model having the two fuzzy models, fuzzy matrices model and BAMs viz. model to analyze the views of public about HIV/ AIDS disease, patient and the awareness program. This book has five chapters and 6 appendices. The first chapter just recalls the definition of four fuzzy models used in this book and gives illustration of some of them. Chapter two introduces the new n-adaptive fuzzy models. Chapter three uses for the first time 2 adaptiv...

In this chapter for the first time we introduce the new class of n-adaptive fuzzy models (n a positive integer and n ≥ 2) and illustrate it. These n-adaptive fuzzy models can analyze a problem using different models so one can get in one case the hidden pattern, in one case the maximum time period in some case output state vector for a given input vector and so on. So this new model has the capacity to analyze the problem in different angles, which can give multiple sugg...

• ### Multi-Valued Logic, Neutrosophy, and Schrödinger Equation

##### By: Florentin Smarandache; V. Christianto

This book was intended to discuss some paradoxes in Quantum Mechanics from the viewpoint of Multi-Valued-logic pioneered by Lukasiewicz, and a recent concept Neutrosophic Logic. Essentially, this new concept offers new insights on the idea of ‘identity’, which too often it has been accepted as given.

2 Lukasiewicz Multi-Valued-logic: History and Introduction to Multi- Valued Algebra 2.1 Introduction to trivalent logic and plurivalent logic We all have heard of typical binary logic, Yes or No. Or in a famous phrase by Shakespeare: “To be or not to be.” In the same way all computer hardwares from early sixties up to this year are built upon the same binary logic. It is known that the Classical Logic, also called Bivalent Logic for taking only two values {0, 1...

• ### Multispace & Multistructure Neutrosophic Transdisciplinary : 100 C...

##### By: Florentin Smarandache

The fourth volume, in my book series of “Collected Papers”, includes 100 published and unpublished articles, notes, (preliminary) drafts containing just ideas to be further investigated, scientific souvenirs, scientific blogs, project proposals, small experiments, solved and unsolved problems and conjectures, updated or alternative versions of previous papers, short or long humanistic essays, letters to the editors

This short technical paper advocates a bootstrapping algorithm from which we can form a statistically reliable opinion based on limited clinically observed data, regarding whether an osteo-hyperplasia could actually be a case of Ewing’s osteosarcoma. The basic premise underlying our methodology is that a primary bone tumour, if it is indeed Ewing’s osteosarcoma, cannot increase in volume beyond some critical limit without showing metastasis. We propose a statistical meth...

• ### Interval Neutrosophic Sets and Logic : Theory and Applications in ...

##### By: Florentin Smarandache; Haibin Wang

Chapter 1 first introduces the interval neutrosophic sets which is an instance of neutrosophic sets. In this chapter, the definition of interval neutrosophic sets and set-theoretic operators are given and various properties of interval neutrosophic set are proved. Chapter 2 defines the interval neutrosophic logic based on interval neutrosophic sets including the syntax and semantics of first order interval neutrosophic propositional logic and first order interval neutros...

The neutrosophic set generalizes the above mentioned sets from philosophical point of view. From scientific or engineering point of view, the neutrosophic set and set-theoretic operators need to be specified. Otherwise, it will be difficult to apply in the real applications. In this chapter, we de_ne the set theoretic operators on an instance of neutrosophic set called Interval Neutrosophic Set (INS). We call it as “interval" because it is subclass of neutrosophic set, t...

• ### Innovative Uses of Matrices

##### By: Florentin Smarandache; W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

This book is organized into seven chapters. The first one is introductory in nature. In the second chapter authors give the unique and new way of analyzing the data which is time dependent. In chapter three the authors for the first time define the new concept of matrices with linguistic variables. In chapter four authors have used super matrices in super fuzzy models like super FCMs, super FRMs super FAMs etc. In chapter five we define interval matrix and matrix interva...

• ### International Journal of Mathematical Combinatorics : Volume 4, De...

##### By: Linfan Mao

Aims and Scope: The International J.Mathematical Combinatorics (ISSN 1937-1055) is a fully refereed international journal, and published quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandache multi-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences. Topics in detail to be covered are: Smarandache...

On (∈ vq)-Fuzzy Bigroup Abstract: In this paper, we introduce the concept of fuzzy singleton to bigroup, and uses it to define (∈ v q)- fuzzy bigroup and discuss its properties. We investigate whether or not the fuzzy point of a bigroup will belong to or quasi coincident with its fuzzy set if the constituent fuzzy points of the constituting subgroups both belong to or quasi coincident with their respective fuzzy sets, and vise versa. We also prove that a fuzzy bisubset ...

• ### International Journal of Mathematical Combinatorics : Volume 4, Ja...

##### By: Linfan Mao

Aims and Scope: The International J.Mathematical Combinatorics (ISSN 1937-1055) is a fully refereed international journal, and published quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandache multi-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences. Topics in detail to be covered are: Smarandache...

On the Bicoset of a Bivector Space Abstract: The study of bivector spaces was first intiated by Vasantha Kandasamy. The objective of this paper is to present the concept of bicoset of a bivector space and obtain some of its elementary properties. Key Words: bigroup, bivector space, bicoset, bisum, direct bisum, inner biproduct space, biprojection.

• ### International Journal of Mathematical Combinatorics : Volume 3, Oc...

##### By: Linfan Mao

Aims and Scope: The International J.Mathematical Combinatorics (ISSN 1937-1055) is a fully refereed international journal, and published quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandache multi-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences. Topics in detail to be covered are: Smarandache...

Smarandache-Zagreb Index on Three Graph Operators Abstract: Many researchers have studied several operators on a connected graph in which one make an attempt on subdivision of its edges. In this paper, we show how the Zagreb indices, a particular case of Smarandache-Zagreb index of a graph changes with these operators and extended these results to obtain a relation connecting the Zagreb index on operators. Key Words: Subdivision graph, ladder graph, Smarandache-Zagreb ...

• ### International Journal of Mathematical Combinatorics : Volume 3, Oc...

##### By: Linfan Mao

Aims and Scope: The International J.Mathematical Combinatorics (ISSN 1937-1055) is a fully refereed international journal, and published quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandache multi-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences. Topics in detail to be covered are: Smarandache...

§1. Why is the WORLD a Combinatorial One? The multiplicity of the WORLD results in modern sciences overlap and hybrid, also implies its combinatorial structure. To see more clear, we present two meaningful proverbs following. Proverb 1. Ames Room An Ames room is a distorted room constructed so that from the front it appears to be an ordinary cubic-shaped room, with a back wall and two side walls parallel to each other and perpendicular to the horizontally level floor ...

• ### International Journal of Mathematical Combinatorics : Volume 3, Oc...

##### By: Linfan Mao

Aims and Scope: The International J.Mathematical Combinatorics (ISSN 1937-1055) is a fully refereed international journal, and published quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandache multi-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences. Topics in detail to be covered are: Smarandache...

Extending Homomorphism Theorem to Multi-Systems Abstract: The multi-laterality of WORLD implies multi-systems to be its best candidate model for ones cognition on nature, which is also included in an ancient book of China, TAO TEH KING written by Lao Zi, an ancient philosopher of China. Then how it works to mathematics, not suspended in thought? This paper explains this action by mathematical logic on mathematical systems generalized to Smarandache systems, or such syst...

• ### International Journal of Mathematical Combinatorics : Volume 2, Ju...

##### By: Linfan Mao

Aims and Scope: The International J.Mathematical Combinatorics (ISSN 1937-1055) is a fully refereed international journal, and published quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandache multi-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences. Topics in detail to be covered are: Smarandache...

Duality Theorems of Multiobjective Generalized Disjunctive Fuzzy Nonlinear Fractional Programming Abstract: This paper is concerned with the study of duality conditions to convex-concave generalized multiobjective fuzzy nonlinear fractional disjunctive programming problems for which the decision set is the union of a family of convex sets. The Lagrangian function for such problems is defined and the Kuhn-Tucker Saddle and Stationary points are characterized. In additio...

• ### International Journal of Mathematical Combinatorics : Volume 2, Ju...

##### By: Linfan Mao

Aims and Scope: The International J.Mathematical Combinatorics (ISSN 1937-1055) is a fully refereed international journal, and published quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandache multi-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences. Topics in detail to be covered are: Smarandache... Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
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