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Differential Psychology


differential psychology, branch of psychology that deals with individual and group differences in behaviour. Charles Darwin’s studies of the survival capabilities of different species and Sir Francis Galton’s researches on individual visual and auditory skills, as well as more recent experiments, have shown that both individual and group differences are quantitative rather than qualitative. Persons do not fall into sharply separated types, such as bright and dull, maladjusted and normal, introvert and extravert. On the contrary, in all psychological characteristics, individuals vary by degree along a continuous scale.

 
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Climate-vegetation-soil Interactions and Long-term Hydrologic Part...

By: M. Sivapalan; T. Wagener; G. Carrillo; K. Sawicz; P. A. Troch

Description: University of Arizona, Tucson, USA. Catchment hydrologic partitioning, regional vegetation composition and soil properties are strongly affected by climate, but the effects of climate-vegetation-soil interactions on river basin water balance are still poorly understood. Here we use a physically-based hydrologic model separately parameterized in 12 US catchments across a climate gradient to decouple the impact of climate and landscape properties to gain ...

Budyko, M. I.: Climate and Life, Academic Press, New York, 508 pp., 1974.; Carrillo, G., Troch, P. A., Sivapalan, M., Wagener, T., Harman, C., and Sawicz, K.: Catchment classification: hydrological analysis of catchment behavior through process-based modeling along a climate gradient, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 3411–3430, doi:10.5194/hess-15-3411-2011, 2011.; Harman, C. and Troch, P. A.: Darwinian hydrology: Can ...

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Advancing Catchment Hydrology to Deal with Predictions Under Chang...

By: E. Zehe; M. Sivapalan; M. C. Westhoff; G. Di Baldassarre; T. Wagener; U. Ehret; H. V. Gupta; U. Scherer; J. Parajka; S. J. Schymanski; S. V. Weijs; A. Van Griensven; M. F. P. Bierkens; A. N. Gelfan; T. A. Bogaard; D. Wang; G. Blöschl; A. Kleidon; C. Harman; L. P. H. Van Beek; H. C. Winsemius

Description: Institute of Water Resources and River Basin Management, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology – KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany. Throughout its historical development, hydrology as an engineering discipline and earth science has relied strongly on the assumption of long-term stationary boundary conditions and system configurations, which allowed for simplified and sectoral descriptions of the dynamics of hydrological systems. However, in the face of rap...

Koutsoyiannis, D.: HESS Opinions A random walk on water, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 585–601, doi:10.5194/hess-14-585-2010, 2010.; Koutsoyiannis, D., Montanari, A., Lins, H. F., and Cohn, T. A.: Climate, hydrology and freshwater: towards an interactive incorporation of hydrological experience into climate research, Hydrolog. Sci. J., 54, 394–405, 2009.; Kritsky, S. N. and Menkel, M. F.: On the methods of studying t...

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Empirical Analysis of Japanese Flood Risk Acceptability Within Mul...

By: S. Ikeda; G. Zhai

Description: Laboratory for Urban Disaster and Public Safety, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing, 210093, China. This paper establishes a framework of a multi-risk context for analyzing acceptable risk beyond single-risk context and empirically examines how other risks affects flood risk acceptability based on Rational Action Paradigm (RAP) by using a survey conducted in the Toki-Shonai River region of Japan. The main findings obtained by cross-sectional ana...

Covello, V. T., Slovic, P., and von Winterfeldt D.: Disaster and Crisis Communications, Findings and Implications for Research and Polciy, in: Risk Communication, edited by: Jungermann, H., Kasperson, R. E., and Wiedemann, P. M., Research Center Julich, 1998.; Datascape and Communications Inc.: Kurofune 2004 for Windows, 2004.; EPA (Environmental Protection Agency): National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, 53 Fed. Reg. 28 495, 1988.; Fischhoff, B., Slovi...

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Adjustment of the Basin-scale Circulation at 26° N to Variations i...

By: S. A. Cunningham; T. Kanzow; A. Mujahid; H. L. Bryden

Description: National Oceanography Centre, Empress Dock, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK. The Rapid instrument array across the Atlantic Ocean along 26° N provides unprecedented monitoring of the basin-scale circulation. A unique feature of the Rapid array is the combination of full-depth moorings with instruments measuring temperature, salinity, pressure time series at many depths with co-located bottom pressure measurements so that dynamic pressure can be measured from s...

Cunningham, S. A., Rayner, D., and Marotzke, J., et al.: Rapid mooring cruise report April–May 2005, RRS Charles Darwin Cruise CD170 and RV Knorr Cruise KN182-2, National Oceanography Centre Southampton Cruise Report 2, Southampton, UK, 147 pp., 2006.; Johns, W. E., Beal, L. M., Baringer, M. O., Molina, J. R., Cunningham, S. A., Kanzow, T., and Rayner, D.: Variability of shallow and deep western boundary currents off the Bahamas during 2004–05: Results from the 26° N RAP...

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Adjustment of the Basin-scale Circulation at 26° N to Variations i...

By: S. A. Cunningham; A. Mujahid; T. Kanzow; H. L. Bryden

Description: National Oceanography Centre, Empress Dock, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK. The Rapid instrument array across the Atlantic Ocean along 26° N provides unprecedented monitoring of the basin-scale circulation. A unique feature of the Rapid array is the combination of full-depth moorings with instruments measuring temperature, salinity, pressure time series at many depths with co-located bottom pressure measurements so that dynamic pressure can be measured from s...

Chelton, D. B., Schlax, M. G., Samelson, R. M., and de Szoeke, R. A.: Global observations of large oceanic eddies, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L15606, doi:10.1029/2007GL030812.890, 2007.; Cunningham, S. A., Kanzow, T., Rayner, D., Baringer, M. O., Johns, W. E., Marotzke, J., Longworth, H. R., Grant, E. M., Hirschi, J. J.-M., Beal, L. M., Meinen, C. S., and Bryden, H. L.: Temporal Variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26.5° N, Science, 317, 935–93...

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The North American Review : Volume 0146, Issue 374 January 1888: N...

By: University of Northern Iowa

Description:The North American Review is a is a journal of literature and culture, published starting in the 19th century.

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The North American Review : Volume 0095, Issue 197 October 1862: N...

By: University of Northern Iowa

Description:The North American Review is a is a journal of literature and culture, published starting in the 19th century.

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The United States Democratic Review : Volume 0018, Issue 95 May 18...

By: J. and H. G. Langley

Description:The United States Magazine and Democratic Review was also (perhaps even primarily) a literary magazine, promoting the development of American literature

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Community Concepts in Plant Ecology: from Humboldtian Plant Geogra...

By: M. Nicolson

Description: Centre for the History of Medicine, School of Social and Political Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8RT, UK. The paper seeks to provide an introduction to, and review of, the history of concepts of the plant community. Eighteenth-century naturalists recognised that vegetation was distributed geographically and that different species of plants and animals were interconnected in what would later be called ecological relationships. It was not, ...

Browne, J.: The Secular Ark: Studies in the History of Biogeography, New Haven, Yale U.P., 1983.; Becking, R. W.: The Zurich-Montpellier School of Phytosociology, Bot. Rev., 23, 411–488, 1957.; Bocking, S.: The ecosystem: research and practice in North America, Web Ecol., 13, 43–47, doi:10.5194/we-13-43-2013, 2013.; Bradley, R.: New Improvements of Planting and Gardening, both Philosophical and Practical, London, 3 Vols...

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Questioning in Criminal Procedure and the Criminal Investigation

By: Gia Already
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