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Differential Psychology


differential psychology, branch of psychology that deals with individual and group differences in behaviour. Charles Darwin’s studies of the survival capabilities of different species and Sir Francis Galton’s researches on individual visual and auditory skills, as well as more recent experiments, have shown that both individual and group differences are quantitative rather than qualitative. Persons do not fall into sharply separated types, such as bright and dull, maladjusted and normal, introvert and extravert. On the contrary, in all psychological characteristics, individuals vary by degree along a continuous scale.

 
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Learning in the Arts and Student Academic and Social Development

By: Richard J. Deasy

Excerpt: The Arts Education Partnership is a national coalition of arts, education, business, philanthropic and government organizations that demonstrates and promotes the essential role of the arts in the learning and development of every child and in the improvement of America's schools. The Partnership includes over 100 organizations that are national in scope and impact. It also includes state and local partnerships focused on influencing education policies and pract...

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Effective Regulatory Review

By: Mitchell E. Daniels, Jr.

Government Reference Publication

As a child, I loved listening to my mother read to me. Little did I know that she was doing much more than providing comfort and entertainment; she was paving the way for my learning and success in school. Research tells us that the early language experiences and education we provide our children shape the way they think and learn. The quality of these experiences affects a child?s enthusiasm for learning, ability to interact with others and success in school. Though man...

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Working Toward Independence

By: President George W. Bush

Government Reference Publication

As a child, I loved listening to my mother read to me. Little did I know that she was doing much more than providing comfort and entertainment; she was paving the way for my learning and success in school. Research tells us that the early language experiences and education we provide our children shape the way they think and learn. The quality of these experiences affects a child?s enthusiasm for learning, ability to interact with others and success in school. Though man...

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The History Guide

I aim here only at revealing myself, who will perhaps be different tomorrow, if I learn something new which changes me. I have no authority to be believed, nor do I want it, feeling myself too ill-instructed to instruct others. (Montaigne) The History Guide has been created for the high school and undergraduate student who is either taking classes in history, or who intends to major in history in college. The purpose of The History Guide is to better prepare yourself for...

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Land Use Change and the Impact on Greenhouse Gas Exchange in North...

By: H. Jamali; L. B. Hutley; S. J. Livesley; J. Beringer; S. P. P. Grover; K. Butterbach-bahl; B. Fest; S. K. Arndt

Description: Research Institute for the Environment and Livelihoods, Charles Darwin University, NT, 0909, Australia. Savanna ecosystems are subjected to accelerating land use change as human demand for food and forest products increases. Land use change has been shown to both increase and decrease greenhouse gas fluxes from savannas and considerable uncertainty exists about the non-CO2 fluxes from the soil. We measured methane (CH4), nitrous oxi...

Arneth, A., Sitch, S., Bondeau, A., Butterbach-Bahl, K., Foster, P., Gedney, N., de Noblet-Ducoudr�, N., Prentice, I. C., Sanderson, M., Thonicke, K., Wania, R., and Zaehle, S.: From biota to chemistry and climate: towards a comprehensive description of trace gas exchange between the biosphere and atmosphere, Biogeosciences, 7, 121–149, doi:10.5194/bg-7-121-2010, 2010.; Beringer, J., Hutley, L. B., Tapper, N. J., Coutts...

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Land Use Change and the Impact on Greenhouse Gas Exchange in North...

By: L. B. Hutley; S. J. Livesley; J. Beringer; H. Jamali; K. Butterbach-bahl; B. Fest; S. P. P. Grover; S. K. Arndt

Description: Research Institute for the Environment and Livelihoods, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT, 0909, Australia. Savanna ecosystems are subject to accelerating land use change as human demand for food and forest products increases. Land use change has been shown to both increase and decrease greenhouse gas fluxes from savannas and considerable uncertainty exists about the non-CO2 fluxes from the soil. We measured methane (CH4), nitro...

Arneth, A., Sitch, S., Bondeau, A., Butterbach-Bahl, K., Foster, P., Gedney, N., de Noblet-Ducoudré, N., Prentice, I. C., Sanderson, M., Thonicke, K., Wania, R., and Zaehle, S.: From biota to chemistry and climate: towards a comprehensive description of trace gas exchange between the biosphere and atmosphere, Biogeosciences, 7, 121–149, doi:10.5194/bg-7-121-2010, 2010.; Beringer, J., Hutley, L. B., Tapper, N. J., Coutts...

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What Makes Darwinian Hydrology Darwinian? Asking a Different Kind ...

By: P. A. Troch; C. Harman

Description: Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. There have been repeated calls for a Darwinian approach to hydrologic science, or for a synthesis of Darwinian and Newtonian approaches, to deepen understanding of the hydrologic system in the larger landscape context, and so develop a better basis for predictions now and in an uncertain future. But what exactly makes a Darwinian approach to hydrolo...

Baker, V. R.: Geosemiosis, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 111, 633–646, 1999.; Atkinson, S. E.: Climate and landscape controls on water balance model complexity over changing timescales, Water Resour. Res., 38, 1314, doi:10.1029/2002WR001487, 2002.; Ayala, F. J.: Darwin and the scientific method, P. Natl. Acad. Sci., 106, 10033–10039, doi:10.1073/pnas.0901404106, 2009.; Bain, ...

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On The Origin Of The Human Mind, Second Edition

By: Ph.D. Andrey Vyshedskiy

“I like the idea of mental synthesis very much ... I quite agree that language evolved in a way that facilitates synthesis and transmission of the synthesized mental image. ... I don't think there can be much doubt, purely conceptually, that language was a late arrival. Whatever mutation provided the key to it would have had no selectional advantage at all, and would have just been a useless “organ,” if it could not have linked up to pre-existing thought systems.” —...

Introduction While studying the neuroscience of consciousness, I was struck with certain facts about mental imagery that seemed to shed some light on the process of the evolution of the human mind. The origin of the human mind remains one of the greatest mysteries of all times. The last 150 years, since Charles Darwin proposed that species evolve under the influence of natural selection (Darwin C, 1859), have been marked by great discoveries. Molecular biology descri...

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I Feel Danish but...: a Case Study on National Identity Formation ...

By: K. Simonsen; L. Koefoed

Description: Department of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change, Roskilde University, Denmark. Non-western minorities in Europe, one can argue, are experiencing particularly vulnerable processes of subjectification and identification. They are often caught between double processes of inclusion/exclusion, integration/segregation or identification/estrangement. This article explores some of the complex and ambiguous processes of identification within this group, i...

Ahmed, S.: Strange Encounters. Embodied Others in Post-Coloniality, London and New York, Routledge, 2000.; Back, L.: New Ethnicities and Urban Culture. Raciss and Multiculture in Young Lives, London, Macmillan, 1996.; Bauman, Z.: Modernity and Ambivalence, Ithaca/New York, Cornell University Press, 1991.; Billig, M.: Banal Nationalism. London, Thousands Oaks and New Delhi, Sage, 1995.; Brah, A.: Cartograhies of Diaspora. Contesting identities, London and New York, Routle...

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Neue Geographien Des Vertrauens/Misstrauens – Die Westdeutsche Vol...

By: M. Hannah

Description: Dept. of Geography, UVM, Old Mill Bldg., 94 University Place, Burlington, VT 05405, USA. Die Auseinandersetzung über die Volkszählung in der Bundesrepublik in den Jahren 1983 und 1987 stellen eine einsichtsreiche Gelegenheit dar, wichtige Aspekte einer „kritischen Anatomie moderner territorialer Herrschaft“ zu verdeutlichen. Im Sinne der Ideen Michel Foucaults (Foucault 1976, 1999, 2004a, 2004b), geht es dabei nicht in erster Linie darum, „territoriale ...

Aust, S.: Der Baader Meinhof Komplex (erweiterte Ausgabe), München, Wilhelm Goldmann Verlag, 1998.; Bhandar, D.: \glqq Renormalizing citizenship and life in Fortress North America\grqq, Citizenship Studies, 8(3), 261–278, 2004.; Bundesverfassungsgericht, 1 BvR 233, 341/81 vom 14 Mai, in: Entscheidungen des Bundesverfassungsgerichts, Tübingen, JCB Mohr (Paul Siebeck), Band 69, 1985.; Bundesverfassungsgericht, 1 BvR 518/02 vom 4.4.2006, Absatz-Nr 160, http://www.bverfg.de/...

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World Health Organization Publication : 54015: Global Prevalence o...

By: Basil Hetzel

Medical Reference Publication

It is a pleasure for the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD), to be associated with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) in presenting this global summary of the prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). This is the first publication derived from the WHO Micronutrient Deficiency Information System (MDIS). It is really only in the last 15 years that IDD have been wide...

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New Englander and Yale Review : Volume 0034, Issue 133 October 187...

By: W. L. Kingsley

Description:The Yale Review is the self-proclaimed oldest literary quarterly in the United States. It is published by Yale University.

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New Englander and Yale Review : Volume 0048, Issue 217 April 1888:...

By: W. L. Kingsley

Description:The Yale Review is the self-proclaimed oldest literary quarterly in the United States. It is published by Yale University.

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The North American Review : Volume 0107, Issue 220 July 1868: Nort...

By: University of Northern Iowa

Description:The North American Review is a is a journal of literature and culture, published starting in the 19th century.

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Structure of Ocean Circulation Between the Galápagos Islands and E...

By: R. Martinez; A. Mascarenhas; C. Collins

Description: Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, USA. From 27 March to 5 April 2009, upper ocean velocities between the Galápagos Islands and Ecuador were measured using a vessel mounted ADCP. A region of possible strong cross-hemisphere exchange was observed immediately to the east of the Galápagos, where a shallow (200 m) 300 km wide northeastward surface flow transported 7–11 Sv. Underlying this strong northeastward surface current, a southward flowing under...

Allauca, S.: Presencia de la corriente costanera Ecuatoriana, Acta Oceanográfica del Pacifico, 6, 10–17, 1990.; Chaigneau, A., Gizolme, A., and Grados, C.: Mesoscale eddies off Peru in altimeter records: Identification algorithms and eddy spatio-temporal patterns, Prog. Oceanogr., 79, 106–119, 2008.; Chavez, F.: The Legitimate El Niño Current, Tropical Ocean-Atmosphere Newsletter, 34, p. 1, 1986.; Church, J. A. and White, N. J.: A 20th century acceleration in global sea-...

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The Effect of Weather and Its Changes on Emotional State – Individ...

By: Z. Spasova

Description: National Center of Public Health and Analyses, Sofia, Bulgaria. Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychological and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio tone, working ability, and concentration; hence their significance in various domains of economic life such as health care, education, transportation, and tourism.

The present pilot study was conducted in Sofia, ...

Auliciems, A.: Mood dependency on low intensity atmospheric variability, Int. J. Biometeorol., 22, 20–32, 1978.; Baibakova, E., Butyeva, I., Ilyicheva, E., and Nevraev, G.: Weather change and its assessment for the medical characterization of climate. Issues of culturology, physiotherapy and medical physical exercise, 145–150, 1966.; Barnston, A.: The effect of weather on mood, productivity, and frequency of emotional crisis in a temperate continental climate, Int. J. Bi...

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Estimating the Storage of Anthropogenic Carbon in the Subtropical ...

By: M. Álvarez; A. Oschlies; C. Goyet; F. Touratier; E. McDonagh; N. Metzl; C. Lo Monaco; A. Yool; T. Tanhua; J. L. Bullister; H. L. Bryden

Description: IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Miquel Marqués 21, 07190 Esporles, Spain. The subtropical Indian Ocean along 32° S was for the first time simultaneously sampled in 2002 for inorganic carbon and transient tracers. The vertical distribution and inventory of anthropogenic carbon (CANT) from five different methods: four data-base methods (ΔC*, TrOCA, TTD and IPSL) and a simulation from the OCCAM model are compared and discussed along with the observed CFC-12 ...

Álvarez, M., Ríos, A. F., Pérez, F. F., Rosón, G., and Bryden, H. L.: Transports and budgets of total inorganic carbon in the subpolar and temperate North Atlantic, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 17, 1002–1029, 2003.; Anderson, L. A.: On the hydrogen and oxygen content of marine phytoplankton, Deep Sea Res. I, 42, 1675–1680, 1995.; Anderson, L. G. and Sarmiento, J. L.: Redfield ratios of remineralization determined by nutrient data analysis, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 8, 65–80, 19...

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Estimating the Storage of Anthropogenic Carbon in the Subtropical ...

By: J. L. Bullister; A. Yool; H. L. Bryden; T. Tanhua; C. Goyet; F. Touratier; E. McDonagh; M. Álvarez; N. Metzl; A. Oschlies; C. Lo Monaco

Description: IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Miquel Marqués 21, 07190 Esporles, Spain. The subtropical Indian Ocean along 32° S was for the first time simultaneously sampled in 2002 for inorganic carbon and transient tracers. The vertical distribution and inventory of anthropogenic carbon (CANT) from five different methods: four data-base methods (ΔC*, TrOCA, TTD and C0IPSL and a simulation from the OCCAM model are compared and dis...

Bellerby,~R G J., Olsen,~A., Furevik,~T., and Anderson,~L A.: Response of the surface ocean \chemCO_2 system in the Nordic Seas and North Atlantic to climate change. In: Climate Variability in the Nordic Seas, ed. by Drange,~H., Dokken,~T M., Furevik,~T., Gerdes,~R., and Berger,~W., Geophysical Monograph Series, AGU, 189–198, 2005.; Benson,~B B. and Krause Jr.,~D.: The concentration and isotopic fractionation of oxygen dissolved in freshwater and seawater in equilibrium ...

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Climate-vegetation-soil Interactions and Long-term Hydrologic Part...

By: M. Sivapalan; G. Carrillo; T. Wagener; K. Sawicz; P. A. Troch

Description: University of Arizona, Tucson, USA. Budyko (1974) postulated that long-term catchment water balance is controlled to first order by the available water and energy. This leads to the interesting question of how do landscape characteristics (soils, geology, vegetation) and climate properties (precipitation, potential evaporation, number of wet and dry days) interact at the catchment scale to produce such a simple and predictable outcome of hydrological p...

Budyko, M. I.: Climate and Life, Academic Press, New York, 508 pp., 1974.; Carrillo, G., Troch, P. A., Sivapalan, M., Wagener, T., Harman, C., and Sawicz, K.: Catchment classification: hydrological analysis of catchment behavior through process-based modeling along a climate gradient, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 3411–3430, doi:10.5194/hess-15-3411-2011, 2011.; Duan, Q., Schaake, J., Andreassian, V., Franks, S., Gu...

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A Thermodynamic Approach to Link Self-organization, Preferential F...

By: A. Kleidon; T. Blume; M. Westhoff; E. Zehe; U. Scherer; U. Ehret

Description: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany. This study investigates whether a thermodynamically optimal hillslope structure can, if existent, serve as a first guess for uncalibrated predictions of rainfall–runoff. To this end we propose a thermodynamic framework to link rainfall–runoff processes and dynamics of potential energy, kinetic energy and capillary binding energy in catchments and hillslopes. The starting point is that hydrauli...

Beven, K. and Clarke, R. T.: On the variation of infiltration into a soil matrix containing a population of macropores., Water Resources Res., 22, 383–385, 1986.; Beven, K. and Germann, K.: Macropores and water flow in soils, Water Resources Res., 18, 1311–1325, 1982.; Blume, T.: Hydrological processes in volcanic ash soils: measuring, modelling and understanding runoff generation in an undisturbed catchment, Ph. D., Institut für Geoökologie, Universität Potsdam, Potsdam...

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