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Differential Psychology


differential psychology, branch of psychology that deals with individual and group differences in behaviour. Charles Darwin’s studies of the survival capabilities of different species and Sir Francis Galton’s researches on individual visual and auditory skills, as well as more recent experiments, have shown that both individual and group differences are quantitative rather than qualitative. Persons do not fall into sharply separated types, such as bright and dull, maladjusted and normal, introvert and extravert. On the contrary, in all psychological characteristics, individuals vary by degree along a continuous scale.

 
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Ethnic Discrimination : A Critical Survey of Economic Explanations

By: Jomo K. S., Professor

Economics

Ethnic discrimination has not been the subject of much theoretical consideration in economics. Typically, ethnic relations are relegated to the realm of sociology, and less commonly to politics, social psychology or social anthropology. Nevertheless, perhaps owing to its political significance in the United States, various economists have attempted to offer economic explanations for the phenomenon of ethnic discrimination, drawing largely on the US experience, particular...

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Recent Developments in Low-Level Lead Exposure and Intellectual Im...

By: Karin Koller

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: In the last decade children?s blood lead levels have fallen significantly in a number of countries, and current mean levels in developed countries are in the region of 3 micrograms/dL. Despite this reduction, childhood lead poisoning continues to be a major public health problem for certain at-risk groups of children, and concerns remain over the effects of lead on intellectual development in infants and children. The evidence for lowered cognitive ability in ch...

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Public Health and Economic Consequences of Methyl Mercury Toxicity...

By: Philip J. Landrigan

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Methyl mercury is a developmental neurotoxicant. Exposure results principally from consumption by pregnant women of seafood contaminated by mercury from anthropogenic (70%) and natural (30%) sources. Throughout the 1990s, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) made steady progress in reducing mercury emissions from anthropogenic sources, especially from power plants, which account for 41% of anthropogenic emissions. However, the U.S. EPA recently propose...

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The Scourge of Hidden Hunger: Global Dimensions of Micronutrient D...

By: G. Kennedy

Nutrition Reference Publication

Excerpt: The most recent estimates from FAO indicate that 840 million people do not receive enough energy from their diets to meet their needs. The overwhelming majority of these people ? 799 million ? live in developing countries. The global toll of people affected by micronutrient deficiency is estimated to be even higher and probably exceeds two billion. Micronutrient deficiencies can exist in populations even where the food supply is adequate in terms of meeting ener...

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Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 1962; Volume 26, Numbe...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

Introduction A reduction of at least one-third in the proportion of infants with low birth weight is one of the seven major goals for the current decade of the “A World Fit for Children” programme of the United Nations. Moreover, nutritional deprivation — the major determinant of low birth weight — is a clear obstacle to the attainment of many of the Millennium Development Goals (1). Monitoring improvements in low birth weight is thus being given high priority within the...

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The Naturalist in Nicaragua

By: Thomas Belt

Introduction: In the ?Life and Letters of Charles Darwin,? edited by his son, Mr. Francis Darwin (volume 3 page 188), the following passage occurs:? ?In the spring of this year (1874) he read a book which gave him great pleasure, and of which he often spoke with admiration, ?The Naturalist in Nicaragua,? by the late Thomas Belt. Mr. Belt, whose untimely death may well be deplored by naturalists, was by profession an engineer, so that all his admirable observations in nat...

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Archived Information

Excerpt: Build a solid foundation for learning for all children. To foster the movement toward world-class student academic performance, our reform efforts focus on four main objectives that address different stages of student development. Objective 1A; All children enter school ready to learn through receiving high-quality educational and developmentally appropriate preschool experiences. We must support children's early development and education, including support for ...

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Omb Contributors to the 2005 Budget

By: Rein Abel

Government Reference Publication

Executive Summary: In his State of the Union Address delivered January 2002, President Bush outlined the next critical step in education reform ? the need to prepare children to read and succeed in school with improved Head Start and early childhood development programs. The President?s call is built upon themes developed at the First Lady?s Summit on Early Childhood Cognitive Development, held in July of 2001. Early childhood, which is the period in a child?s life from ...

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State Prevention Inventory New Mexico Profile

By: Rich Tavares

Government Reference Publication

Executive Summary: In his State of the Union Address delivered January 2002, President Bush outlined the next critical step in education reform ? the need to prepare children to read and succeed in school with improved Head Start and early childhood development programs. The President?s call is built upon themes developed at the First Lady?s Summit on Early Childhood Cognitive Development, held in July of 2001. Early childhood, which is the period in a child?s life from ...

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Judo Sports Functioning Options

By: George Zubitashvili
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Learning in the Arts and Student Academic and Social Development

By: Richard J. Deasy

Excerpt: The Arts Education Partnership is a national coalition of arts, education, business, philanthropic and government organizations that demonstrates and promotes the essential role of the arts in the learning and development of every child and in the improvement of America's schools. The Partnership includes over 100 organizations that are national in scope and impact. It also includes state and local partnerships focused on influencing education policies and pract...

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Effective Regulatory Review

By: Mitchell E. Daniels, Jr.

Government Reference Publication

As a child, I loved listening to my mother read to me. Little did I know that she was doing much more than providing comfort and entertainment; she was paving the way for my learning and success in school. Research tells us that the early language experiences and education we provide our children shape the way they think and learn. The quality of these experiences affects a child?s enthusiasm for learning, ability to interact with others and success in school. Though man...

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Working Toward Independence

By: President George W. Bush

Government Reference Publication

As a child, I loved listening to my mother read to me. Little did I know that she was doing much more than providing comfort and entertainment; she was paving the way for my learning and success in school. Research tells us that the early language experiences and education we provide our children shape the way they think and learn. The quality of these experiences affects a child?s enthusiasm for learning, ability to interact with others and success in school. Though man...

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The History Guide

I aim here only at revealing myself, who will perhaps be different tomorrow, if I learn something new which changes me. I have no authority to be believed, nor do I want it, feeling myself too ill-instructed to instruct others. (Montaigne) The History Guide has been created for the high school and undergraduate student who is either taking classes in history, or who intends to major in history in college. The purpose of The History Guide is to better prepare yourself for...

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On The Origin Of The Human Mind, Second Edition

By: Ph.D. Andrey Vyshedskiy

“I like the idea of mental synthesis very much ... I quite agree that language evolved in a way that facilitates synthesis and transmission of the synthesized mental image. ... I don't think there can be much doubt, purely conceptually, that language was a late arrival. Whatever mutation provided the key to it would have had no selectional advantage at all, and would have just been a useless “organ,” if it could not have linked up to pre-existing thought systems.” —...

Introduction While studying the neuroscience of consciousness, I was struck with certain facts about mental imagery that seemed to shed some light on the process of the evolution of the human mind. The origin of the human mind remains one of the greatest mysteries of all times. The last 150 years, since Charles Darwin proposed that species evolve under the influence of natural selection (Darwin C, 1859), have been marked by great discoveries. Molecular biology descri...

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World Health Organization Publication : 54015: Global Prevalence o...

By: Basil Hetzel

Medical Reference Publication

It is a pleasure for the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD), to be associated with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) in presenting this global summary of the prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). This is the first publication derived from the WHO Micronutrient Deficiency Information System (MDIS). It is really only in the last 15 years that IDD have been wide...

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Questioning in Criminal Procedure and the Criminal Investigation

By: Gia Already
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