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Differential Psychology


differential psychology, branch of psychology that deals with individual and group differences in behaviour. Charles Darwin’s studies of the survival capabilities of different species and Sir Francis Galton’s researches on individual visual and auditory skills, as well as more recent experiments, have shown that both individual and group differences are quantitative rather than qualitative. Persons do not fall into sharply separated types, such as bright and dull, maladjusted and normal, introvert and extravert. On the contrary, in all psychological characteristics, individuals vary by degree along a continuous scale.

 
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Father and Son : Chapter 13 - Father and Son

By: Edmund Gosse

Father and Son (1907) is a memoir by poet and critic Edmund Gosse, which he subtitled a study of two temperaments. The book describes Edmund's early years in an exceptionally devout Plymouth Brethren home. His mother, who dies early and painfully of breast cancer, is a writer of Christian tracts. His father, Philip Henry Gosse, is an influential, though largely self-taught, invertebrate zoologist and student of marine biology who, after his wife's death, takes Edmund to ...

Memoirs

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Darwin and Modern Science

By: A. C. Seward

Preface: At the suggestion of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, the Syndics of the University Press decided in March, 1908, to arrange for the publication of a series of Essays in commemoration of the Centenary of the birth of Charles Darwin and of the Fiftieth anniversary of the publication of ?The Origin of Species? The preliminary arrangements were made by a committee consisting of the following representatives of the Council of the Philosophical Society and of the...

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The Dhammapada

By: F. Max Muller

Introductory: When I had read Charles Darwin?s book ?On the Origin of Species,? it seemed to me that there was one mode, and that perhaps the most certain, of testing the correctness of the views developed in it, namely, to attempt apply them as specially as possible to some particular group of animals. such an attempt to establish a genealogical tree, whether for the families of a class, the genera of a large family, or for the species of an extensive genus, and to prod...

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The Naturalist in Nicaragua

By: Thomas Belt

Introduction: In the ?Life and Letters of Charles Darwin,? edited by his son, Mr. Francis Darwin (volume 3 page 188), the following passage occurs, ?In the spring of this year (1874) he read a book which gave him great pleasure, and of which he often spoke with admiration, ?The Naturalist in Nicaragua,? by the late Thomas Belt. Mr. Belt, whose untimely death may well be deplored by naturalists, was by profession an engineer, so that all his admirable observations in natu...

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A Modern Utopia

By: Wells, H. G.

Description: Although best known for his scientific romances that paved the way for the modern science fiction genre, H. G. Wells (1866-1946) produced significant works on politics, society, science and history. Thanks in part to his teacher, T. H. Huxley, Wells became quite interested in the works of well known scientists like Charles Darwin, and admired their ability to imagine and think beyond their times. When writing his 1905 novel, A Modern Utopia, Wells drew upon ...

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Social Laws : An Outline of Sociology

By: Howard C. Warren

Economic Theory Literature

Excerpt: Editor?s Preface. It goes without saying that no introduction of M. Tarde is necessary to English and American readers who are versed in current sociological discussions. To the general reader, therefore, and to him alone, I venture, on the insistent request of the publishers, to say that in this little book he will find the leading ideas of one of the most authoritative and distinguished living writers in sociology and social psychology. M. Tarde?s larger works...

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A Child's Day : Home, School, And Play (Selected Indicators of Chi...

By: Jason Fields

Statistical Reference Document

Introduction: This report presents findings from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) on the well-being of American children. While it may seem intuitive, the concept of child ?well-being? is difficult to conceptualize and measure. Recent research primarily assesses child well-being for two age groups: preadolescent children and young adults making the transition to adulthood. Preadolescents are often assessed using measures of cognitive development, soc...

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A Child's Day : Home, School, And Play (Selected Indicators of Chi...

By: Jason Fields

Statistical Reference Document

Introduction: This report presents findings from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) on the well-being of American children. While it may seem intuitive, the concept of child ?well-being? is difficult to conceptualize and measure. Recent research primarily assesses child well-being for two age groups: preadolescent children and young adults making the transition to adulthood. Preadolescents are often assessed using measures of cognitive development, soc...

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Improving Survey Quality through Pretesting

By: Theresa J. Demaio

Statistical Reference Document

Excerpt: As the vehicle of data collection, the questionnaire is one of the critical components in achieving high quality in a survey. The best of sampling schemes and estimation strategies will not yield accurate data if the answers provided by the respondent are not meaningful. During the last decade or so, there has been increased emphasis on building quality into the questionnaire design process through pretesting. This has been approached from an operational perspec...

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Curriculum for Training Educators of Youth in Confinement

By: Carol Cramer Brooks

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Education programs can improve overall conditions in juvenile confinement facilities. Education should be the cornerstone of a juvenile confinement facility’s programs through emphasis on cognitive development, behavioral skills, vocational training, and active learning and relearning. Yet educators in these facilities often feel isolated, alienated, and ill-prepared to teach incarcerated juvenile offenders. Research indicates that educators are indeed seldom pr...

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High Confidence Visual Recognition of Persons by a Test of Statist...

By: John G. Daugman

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: EFFORTS to devise reliable mechanical means for biometric personal identification have a long and colorful history. In the Victorian era for example, inspired by the birth of criminology and a desire to identify prisoners and malefactors, Sir Francis Galton F.R.S. [13] proposed various biometric indices for facial profiles which he represented numerically. Seeking to improve on the system of French physician Alphonse Bertillon for classifying convicts into one o...

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Curriculum for Training Educators of Youth in Confinement

By: Carol Cramer Brooks

Legal Reference Publication

Excerpt: Education programs can improve overall conditions in juvenile confinement facilities. Education should be the cornerstone of a juvenile confinement facility?s programs through emphasis on cognitive development, behavioral skills, vocational training, and active learning and relearning. Yet educators in these facilities often feel isolated, alienated, and ill-prepared to teach incarcerated juvenile offenders. Research indicates that educators are indeed seldom pr...

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Childhood Victimization : Early Adversity, Later Psychopathology

By: Cathy Spatz Widom

Legal Reference Publication

Excerpt: Childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect have both immediate and long-term effects. Different types of abuse have a range of consequences for a child?s later physical and psychological well-being, cognitive development, and behavior. But there is another side to the issue: Because these crimes often occur against a background of more chronic adversity, in families with multiple problems, it may not be reasonable to assume that before being victimized ...

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Antecedents and Correlates of Improved Cognitive Performance in Ch...

By: David Bellinger

Government Reference Publication

Introduction: In our prospective study of lead and cognitive development, children with high umbilical cord blood lead levels (10-25 pgldL) achieved significantly lower Mental Development Index scores through 2 years of age than did infants whose cord blood lead levels were low (< 3 pg1dL) or medium (6-7 pg1dL) (1). In contrast to the results of the infant assessments, cord blood lead level was not significantly related to children?s performance on the McCarthy Scales of...

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Interrelations of Lead Levels in Bone, Venous Blood, And Umbilical...

By: Joel Schwartz

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Lead is a well-known human reproductive toxin. For centuries, lead exposure has been linked to adverse outcomes in pregnant women and newborns (1). In addition, fetal lead exposure can cause delay in the embryonic development of multiple organ systems, including retardation of cognitive development in early childhood (2). Most studies that have used biomarkers to measure fetal lead exposure have relied on lead levels in maternal blood or umbilical cord blood at ...

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Improving Bioavailability of Iron in Indian Diets through Food-Bas...

By: K. K. Sharma

Nutrition Reference Publication

Excerpt: Prevalence and effects of iron deficiency anaemia in India Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a significant public health problem in India. National and regional surveys indicate that the prevalence of anaemia could be as high as 74 percent in children below three years of age, 85 percent in expectant mothers and 90 percent among adolescent girls in some population groups (MOHFW, 1998?1999; ICMR, 2001). In the slums of Bombay anaemia was found to be present in 70 ...

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Cultural Perception Module China

By: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Nutrition Reference Publication

Excerpt: I. Background The national culture is a non-ignorable influential factor for social development in China. It is reflected both in the establishments and implementations of social policies, and in social functions and human behaviors. Any policy or institution falling short of national culture and social psychology would inevitably fail in its implementation. I.1 Agricultural Culture1 The agricultural culture here refers to the social phenomena including social i...

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Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 1971; Volume 44; Volum...

By: T. Ramachandra Rao

Medical Reference Publication

Introduction The 1970 Birth Cohort Study is a national and Longitudinal study of the health and development of 15,000 children living in England, Scotland and LUales who were born between 5th and 11th April, 1970. Large cohort studies such as this offer considerable opportunities for both cross-sectional and longitudinal multivariate research into children's lives and their physical and cognitive development. Unfortunately, however, because such studies appear to be able...

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Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 1977; Volume 55, Numbe...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

Introduction Iron-deficiency anaemia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and affects up to two-thirds of children in most developing countries (1). Infants and young children aged 6–18 months are particularly vulnerable to iron-deficiency anaemia because their requirement for iron is high (2). The effects of anaemia on child development are especially serious: poor cognitive development, decreased future learning and school achievement, decreased resi...

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Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 1986; Volume 64, Numbe...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

Aside from reducing the load of worms, benzimidazole treatment also improves the nutritional status and cognitive development of children infected with Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworms and reduces hookwormassociated anaemia in children and in women of childbearing age (3–9). A number of studies have shown the short- and long-term benefits of periodic treatment with a single dose of 500 mg mebendazole in endemic areas (8, 10, 11). Levamisole also i...

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