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Soil Aggregation, Erodibility, and Erosion Rates in Mountain Soils...

By: G. Falsone; S. Stanchi; E. Bonifacio

Description: DISAFA, University of Torino, Largo Braccini 2, 10095 Grugliasco, TO, Italy. Erosion is a relevant soil degradation factor in mountain agrosilvopastoral ecosystems that can be enhanced by the abandonment of agricultural land and pastures left to natural evolution. The on-site and off-site consequences of soil erosion at the catchment and landscape scale are particularly relevant and may affect settlements at the interface with mountain ecosystems. RUSLE...

Amezketa, E.: Soil aggregate stability: A review, J. Sustain. Agric., 14, 83–151, 1999.; Angassa, A.: Effects of grazing intensity and bush encroachment on herbaceous species and rangeland condition in Southern Ethiopia, Land Degrad. Dev., 25, 438–451, doi:10.1002/ldr.2160, 2014.; Barthès, B., Albrecht, A., Asseline, L., De Noni, G., and Roose, E.: Relationships between soil erodibility and topsoil aggregate stability or car...

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Effects of Land Use Changes and Soil Conservation Intervention on ...

By: A. Taimeh; F. Ziadat; Y. Mohawesh

Description: International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), P.O. Box 950764 Amman, 11195, Jordan. Land degradation resulting from improper land use and management is a major cause of declined productivity in the arid environment. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of a sequence of land use changes, soil conservation measures, and the time since their implementation on the degradation of selected soil properties. The cl...

Abu Hammad, A. and Tumeizi, A.: Land degradation: socioeconomic and environmental causes and consequences in the eastern Mediterranean, Land Degrad. Dev., 23, 216–226, 2012.; Alphan, H.: Classifying land cover conversions in coastal wetlands in the Mediterranean: pairwise comparisons of Landsat images, Land Degrad. Dev., 23, 278–292, 2012.; Banning, E. B., Rahimim, D., and Siggers, J.:The late Neolithic of the Southern Levant: hiatus, settlement shift or observer bias? T...

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Using the Nordic Geodetic Observing System for Land Uplift Studies...

By: M. Poutanen; J. Virtanen; A. Kairus; M. Nordman

Description: Finnish Geodetic Institute, P.O. Box 15, 02431 Masala, Finland. Geodetic observing systems have been planned and developed during the last decade. An ideal observing system consists of a network of geodetic observing stations with several techniques at the same site, publicly accessible databases, and as a product delivers data time series, combination of techniques or some other results obtained from the datasets. Globally, there is the IAG GGOS (...

Ågren, J. and Svensson, R.: Postglacial Land Uplift Model and System Definition for the New Swedish Height System RH 2000. LMV-Rapport 2007:4. Reports in Geodesy and Geographical Information Systems, Gävle, ISSN 280-5731, 2007.; Breili, K.: Investigations of surface loads of the Earth – geometrical deformations and gravity changes, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Mathematical Sciences and Technology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, vol. 2009:25, ISSN 1503-1667, ISBN 9...

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Density Structure and Geometry of the Costa Rican Subduction Zone ...

By: I. G. Arroyo; O. H. Lücke

Description: University of Costa Rica, National Seismological Network, 214-2060 San Pedro, Costa Rica. The eastern part of the oceanic Cocos Plate presents a heterogeneous crustal structure due to diverse origins and ages as well as plate-hot spot interactions which originated the Cocos Ridge, a structure that converges with the Caribbean Plate in southeastern Costa Rica. The complex structure of the oceanic plate directly influences the dynamics and ...

Abratis, M. and Wörner, G.: Ridge collision, slab-window formation, and the flux of Pacific asthenosphere into the Caribbean realm, Geology, 29, 127–130, doi:2.0.co;2>10.1130/0091-7613(2001)029<0127:rcswfa>2.0.co;2, 2001.; Arroyo, I. G.: Sismicidad y Neotectónica en la región de influencia del Proyecto Boruca: hacia una mejor definición sismogénica del sureste de Costa Rica, Licenciate Thesis, Universit...

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Fracturing of Ductile Anisotropic Multilayers: Influence of Materi...

By: A. Griera; M.-g. Llorens; E. Gomez-rivas

Description: Department of Geology and Petroleum Geology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK. Fractures in rocks deformed under dominant ductile conditions typically form simultaneously with viscous flow. Material strength plays a fundamental role during fracture development in such systems, since fracture propagation can be strongly reduced if the material accommodates most of the deformation by viscous flow. Additionally, the degree and nature of anisot...

Arslan, A., Passchier, C. W., and Koehn, D.: Foliation boudinage, J. Struct. Geol., 30, 291–309, 2008.; Behrmann, J. H.: A precautionary note on shear bands as kinematic indicators, J. Struct. Geol., 9, 659–666, 1987.; Anderson, T. L.: Fracture mechanics: fundamentals and applications, 3rd Edition, CRC Press Taylor & Francis, 640 pp., 2005.; Bons, P. D., Druguet, E., Hamann, I., Carreras, J., and Passchier, C. W.: Apparent boudinage in dykes, J. Struct. Geol., 26, 625–63...

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An Open Ocean Record of the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event : Volume...

By: D. B. Kemp; J. Trabucho-alexandre; R. S. Hori; D. R. Gröcke; L. Schwark

Description: Department of Earth Sciences, Durham University, Science Laboratories, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE, UK. Oceanic anoxic events were time intervals in the Mesozoic characterized by widespread distribution of marine organic matter-rich sediments (black shales) and significant perturbations in the global carbon cycle. These perturbations are globally recorded in sediments as carbon isotope excursions irrespective of lithology and depositional environment. Du...

Thomas, E.: Cenozoic mass extinctions in the deep sea: what perturbs the largest habitat on Earth?, in: Large Ecosystem Perturbations: Causes and Consequences, edited by: Monechi, S., Coccioni, R., and Rampino, M. R., Geol. S. Am. S., 424, 1–23, 2007.; Trabucho-Alexandre, J., Tuenter, E., Henstra, G. A., van der Zwan, K. J., van de Wal, R. S. W., Dijkstra, H. A., and de Boer, P. L.: The mid-Cretaceous North Atlantic nutrient trap: black shales and OAEs, Paleoceanography,...

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Cr(VI) Adsorption/Desorption on Untreated and Mussel Shell-treated...

By: M. Arias-estévez; J. C. Nóvoa-muñoz; L. Cutillas-barreiro; E. Álvarez-rodríguez; M. J. Fernández-sanjurjo; M. Otero; A. Núñez-delgado

Description: Department Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Engineering Polytechnic School, Campus Univ., University Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo, Spain. We used batch-type experiments to study Cr(VI) adsorption/desorption on granitic material, forest soil, pyritic material, mussel shell, and on forest soil and granitic material amended with 12 t ha-1 shell, considering the effects of varying Cr(VI) concentration and pH. Sequential extractio...

Álvarez, E., Fernández-Sanjurjo, M. J., Núñez, A., Seco, N., and Corti, G.: Aluminium fractionation and speciation in bulk and rhizosphere of a grass soil amended with mussel shells or lime, Geoderma, 173–174, 322–329, 2013.; Arnesen, A. K. M. and Krogstad, T.: Sorption and desorption of fluoride in soil polluted from the aluminium smelter at Ardal in Western Norway, Water Air Soil Poll., 103, 357–373, 1998.; Avundainayagam, S., Naidu, R., Kookana, R. S., Alston, A. M., ...

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A Lithosphere-scale Structural Model of the Barents Sea and Kara S...

By: J. Sippel; J. I. Faleide; M. Scheck-wenderoth; P. Klitzke

Description: Helmholtz Centre Potsdam, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany. The Barents Sea and Kara Sea region as part of the European Arctic shelf, is geologically situated between the Proterozoic East-European Craton in the south and early Cenozoic passive margins in the north and the west. Proven and inferred hydrocarbon resources encouraged numerous industrial and academic studies in the last decades which brought along a wide spec...

Allen, P. A. and Allen, J. R.: Basin Analysis: Principles and Application to Petroleum Play Assessment, 3rd edn., Wiley-Blackwell, 2013.; Artyushkov, E.: The formation mechanism of the Barents basin, Russ. Geol. Geophys.+, 46, 700–713, available at: http://www.agu.org/wps/rgg/46/46.07/articles/S02JUL05.PDF (last access: 9 May 2014), 2005.; Barrère, C., Ebbing, J., and Gernigon, L.: Offshore prolongatio...

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The Ring-shaped Thermal Field of Stefanos Crater, Nisyros Island: ...

By: M. Pantaleo; T. R. Walter

Description: Department 2, Physics of the Earth, Helmholtz Centre Potsdam, GFZ German Research Centre for Geoscience, Potsdam 14473, Germany. Fumarole fields related to hydrothermal processes release the heat of the underground through permeable pathways. Thermal changes, therefore, are likely to depend also on the size and permeability variation of these pathways. There may be different explanations for the observed permeability changes, such as fault control, lith...

Alyamani, M. S. and Zekâi, Ş.: Determination of Hydraulic Conductivity from Complete Grain-Size Distribution Curves, Groundwater, 31, 551–555, 1993.; Ambrosio, M., Doveri, M., Fagioli, M. T., Marini, L., Principe, C., and Raco, B.: Water–rock interaction in the magmatic-hydrothermal system of Nisyros Island (Greece), J. Volcanol. Geothermal Res., 192, 1, 57–68, 2010.; ASTM-D6913-04: Standard Test Methods for Particle-Size Distribution (Gradation) of Soils Using Sieve Ana...

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The Morphology and Surface Features of Olivine in Kimberlite Lava:...

By: L. A. Porritt; J. K. Russell; R. J. Brown; T. J. Jones

Description: Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, V6T 1 Z4, Canada. Many kimberlite rocks contain large proportions of ellipsoidal-shaped xenocrystic olivine grains that are derived mainly from the disaggregation of peridotite. Xenocrystic olivine grains from a lava erupted from the Quaternary Igwisi Hills kimberlites, Tanzania, are compared to phenocrystic olivine, liberated from picritic lavas, and m...

Afanas'ev, V. P., Nikolenko, E. I., Tychkov, N. S., Titov, A. T., Tolstov, A. V., Kornilova, V. P., and Sobolev, N. V.: Mechanical abrasion of kimberlite indicator minerals: experimental investigations, Russ. Geol. Geophys+, 49, 91–97, 2008.; Boyd, F.: Garnet peridotites and the system CaSiO 3-MgSiO 3-\chemAl_2O_3, Mineral. Soc. Amer. Spec. Pap., 3, 63–75, 1970.; Brett, R. C.: Kimberlitic olivine, M.S. thesis, University of British Columbia, Columbia, 2009.; Brett, R. C....

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The Diverse Crustal Structure and Magmatic Evolution of the Manihi...

By: R. Werner; K. Gohl; G. Uenzelmann-neben; K. Hochmuth

Description: Alfred-Wegener-Institut Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Am Alten Hafen 26, 27568 Bremerhaven, Germany. The Manihiki Plateau is a Large Igneous Province (LIP) in the central Pacific. It was emplaced as part of the Super-LIP Ontong Java Nui and experienced fragmentation into three sub-plateaus, possibly during the break-up of Ontong Java Nui. The Manihiki Plateau is presumably the centerpiece of this Super-LIP and its investig...

Ai, H.-A., Stock, J. M., Clayton, R., and Luyendyk, B.: Vertical tectonics of the High Plateau region, Manihiki Plateau, Western Pacific, from seismic stratigraphy, Mar. Geophys. Res., 29, 13–26, doi:10.1007/s11001-008-9042-0, 2008.; Beiersdorf, H., Bach, W., Duncan, R. A., Erzinger, J., and Weiss, W.: New evidence for the production of EM-type ocean island basalts and large volumes of volcaniclastites during the ea...

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Using the Level Set Method in Geodynamical Modeling of Multi-mater...

By: C. Thieulot; B. Hillebrand; A. P. Van Den Berg; T. Geenen; W. Spakman

Description: Department of Earth Sciences, Utrecht University, the Netherlands. The level set method allows for tracking material surfaces in 2-D and 3-D flow modeling and is well suited for applications of multi-material flow modeling. The level set method utilizes smooth level set functions to define material interfaces, which makes the method stable and free of oscillations that are typically observed in case step-like functions parameterize interfaces. By d...

Andrews, E. and Billen, M.: Rheologic controls on the dynamics of slab detachment, Tectonophysics, 464, 60–69, 2009.; Bangerth, W. and Heister, T.: ASPECT: Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth's ConvecTion, Texas A&M University/Computational Infrastructure in Geodynamics, 2013.; Androvičová, A., Čižková, H., and van den Berg, A.: The effects of rheological decoupling on slab deformation in the Earth's upper mantle, Stud. Geophys. Geod., 57, 460–481, 2013.; Baumann, C., ...

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Reflection Seismic Studies Over the End-glacial Burträsk Fault, Sk...

By: C. Juhlin; B. Lund

Description: Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Universtiy, Uppsala, Sweden. Reflection seismic data were acquired along a ca. 22 km long profile over the end-glacial Burträsk Fault with a nominal receiver and source spacing of 20 m. A steeply dipping reflection can be correlated to the Burträsk Fault, indicating that the fault dips at about 55° to the southeast near the surface. The reflection from the fault is rather poorly imaged, probably due to a jump in the faul...

Park, C. B., Miller, R. D., Steeples, D. W., and Black, R. A.: Swept impact seismic technique (SIST), Geophysics, 61, 1789–1803, 1996.; Arvidsson, R.: Whole crustal rupturing related to postglacial rebound, Science, 274, 744–746, 1996.; Bödvarsson, R. and Lund, B.: The SIL seismological data acquisition system – as operated in Iceland and in Sweden, in: Methods and Applications of Signal Processing in Seismic Network Operations, edited by: Takanami, T. and Kitagawa, G., ...

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Influence of Humic Acid Applications on Soil Physicochemical Prope...

By: İ. Gümüş; C. Şeker

Description: Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Selçuk, 42031 Konya, Turkey. Soil structure is often said to be the key to soil productivity since a fertile soil, with desirable soil structure and adequate moisture supply, constitutes a productive soil. Soil structure influences soil water movement and retention, erosion, crusting, nutrient recycling, root penetration and crop yield. The objective of this work is to ...

Bal, L., Şeker, C., and Gümüş Ersoy, İ.: Kaymak tabakasıoluşumuna fiziko-kimyasal faktörlerin etkileri, Selçuk Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi, 25, 96–103, 2011.; Alagöz, Z. and Erdem, Y.: Effects of different sources of organic matter on soil aggregate formation and stability: a laboratory study on a Lithic Rhodoxeralf from Turkey, Soil Till. Res., 103, 419–424, 2009.; Brevik, E. C., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Pereg, L., Quinton, J. N., Six, J., and Van Oost, K.: The...

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Physicochemical Changes in Pyrogenic Organic Matter (Biochar) Afte...

By: A. R. Zimmerman; R. Hamdan; W. T. Cooper; A. Mukherjee

Description: Department of Geological Sciences, University of Florida, 241 Williamson Hall, P.O. Box 112120, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. Predicting the effects of pyrogenic organic matter (OM) addition (either natural or intentional as in the case of biochar amendment) on soil chemistry and crop yields has been hampered by a lack of understanding of how pyrogenic OM evolves in the environment over time. This work compared the physicochemical characteristics of newly ...

Wu, F. P., Jia, Z. K., Wang, S. G., Chang, S. X., and Startsev, A.: Contrasting effects of wheat straw and its biochar on greenhouse gas emissions and enzyme activities in a Chernozemic soil, Biol. Fertility Soils, 49, 555–565, 2013.; Yao, F. X., Arbestain, M. C., Virgel, S., Blanco, F., Arostegui, J., Maciá-Agulló, J. A., and Macías, F.: Simulated geochemical weathering of a mineral ash-rich biochar in a modified Soxhlet reactor, Chemosphere, 80, 724–732, 2010.; Zech, W...

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Changes in Soil Organic Carbon and Nitrogen Capacities of Salix Ch...

By: Q. Z. Jia; Y. Yu

Description: Insititute of Desertification Studies, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, China. The Gonghe Basin is a sandified and desertified region of China, but the distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) along the cultivation chronosequence across this ecologically fragile region is not well understood. This study was carried out to understand the effects of afforestation with Salix cheilophila for different periods of time (6, ...

Lal, R.: Potential of desertification control to sequester carbon and mitigate the greenhouse effect, Climatic Change, 51, 35–72, 2001.; Allington, G. and Valone, T.: Reversal of desertification: the role of physical and chemical soil properties, J. Arid Environ., 74, 973–977, 2010.; Bremner, J., Sparks, D., Page, A., Helmke, P., Loeppert, R., Soltanpour, P., Tabatabai, M., Johnston C., and Sumner, M.: Nitrogen-total, Methods of soil analysis. Part 3 – chemical methods, ...

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Observation of a Local Gravity Isosurface by Airborne Lidar of Lak...

By: B. Székely; R. Weber; C. Ressl; G. Timár; C. Briese; N. Pfeifer; A. Zlinszky

Description: Vienna University of Technology, Department of Geodesy and Geoinformation; Gußhausstraße 27–29, 1040 Wien, Austria. Airborne LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) is a remote sensing method commonly used for mapping surface topography in high resolution. A water surface in hydrostatic equilibrium theoretically represents a gravity isosurface. Here we compare LIDAR-based ellipsoidal water surface height measurements all around the shore of a major lak...

Ádám, J.: Difference between geoid undulation and quasigeoid height in Hungary, Bolletino di Geofisica Teorica e Applicata, 40, 571–575, 1999.; Awange, J. L., Sharifi, M. A., Ogonda, G., Wickert, J., Grafarend, E. W., and Omulo, M. A.: The falling Lake Victoria water level: GRACE, TRIMM and CHAMP satellite analysis of the lake basin, Water Resour. Manag., 22, 775–796, doi:10.1007/s11269-007-9191-y, 2008.; Baghdadi, ...

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Relationship Between Hydraulic Properties and Plant Coverage of th...

By: C. Cassinari; C. Piccini; P. Manfredi; L. Giupponi; M. Trevisan

Description: Istituto di Chimica Agraria ed Ambientale, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via Emilia Parmense 84, 29122 Piacenza, Italy. In this paper the results of a study of soil hydraulic properties and plant coverage of a landfill located in Piacenza (Po Valley, Italy) are presented, together with the attempt to relate the hydraulic properties in relation with plant coverage. The measured soil water retention curve was first compared with the output of pedo...

Acutis, M. and Donatelli, M.: SOILPAR 2.00: software to estimate soil hydrological parameters and functions, Eur. J. Agron., 18, 3–4, 373–377, 2002.; Allen, R. G., Pereira, L. S., Raes, D., and Smith, M.: Crop evapotraspiration – Guidelines for computing crop water requirements. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 56, FAO – Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, available at: http://www.fa...

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Future Antarctic Bed Topography and Its Implications for Ice Sheet...

By: S. Nowicki; E. R. Ivins; E. Larour; M. Morlighem; S. Adhikari; H. Seroussi

Description: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109, USA. The Antarctic bedrock is evolving as the solid Earth responds to the past and ongoing evolution of the ice sheet. A recently improved ice loading history suggests that the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) has generally been losing its mass since the Last Glacial Maximum. In a sustained warming climate, the AIS is predicted to retreat at a greater pace, pr...

Bamber, J. L. and Aspinall, W. P.: An expert judgement assessment of future sea level rise from the ice sheets, Nature Clim. Change, 3, 424–427, 2013.; Bamber, J. L., Gomez-Dans, J. L., and Griggs, J. A.: A new 1 km digital elevation model of the Antarctic derived from combined satellite radar and laser data - Part 1: Data and methods, The Cryosphere, 3, 101–111, http://www.the-cryosphere.net/3/101/2009/, 2009.; Binds...

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Factors Controlling the Geochemical Composition of Limnopolar Lake...

By: M. Toro; S. Giralt; T. Taboada; I. Rozas Muñiz; S. Pla-rabés; A. Martínez Cortizas; I. Granados

Description: Departamento de Edafoloxía e Química Agrícola, Facultade de Bioloxía, Campus Vida s/n, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain. We sampled a short (57 cm) sediment core in Limnopolar Lake (Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, South Shetlands Islands), which spans the last ~ 1600 years. The core was sectioned at high resolution and analyzed for elemental and mineralogical composition, and SEM-EDS analysis of glass mineral particles in selected samples. T...

Abollino, O., Aceto, M., Buoso, M., Gasparon, M., Green, W. J., Malandrino, M., and Mentasti, E.: Distribution of major, minor and trace elements in lake environments of Antarctica, Antarct. Sci., 16, 277–291, 2004.; Aceto, M., Sarzanini, C., Abollino, O., Sacchero, G., and Mentasti, E.: Distribution of minor and trace metals in Carezza Lake (Antarctica) ecosystems, Int. J. Environ. An. Ch., 55, 165–177, 1994.; Aitchison, J.: The Statistical Analysis of Compositional Dat...

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