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Biogenic Soa Formation Through Gas-phase Oxidation and Gas-to-part...

By: E. Swietlicki; D. Mogensen; E. Hermansson; P. Roldin; M. Boy; N. Kivekäs; A. Rusanen

Description: Division of Nuclear Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, 221 00, Sweden. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by the vegetation play an important role for the aerosol mass loadings since the oxidation products of these compounds can take part in the formation and growth of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). The concentrations and properties of BVOCs and their oxidation products in the atmosphere are poorly characterized, which leads to...

Bergström, R., Denier van der Gon, H. A. C., Prévôt, A. S. H., Yttri, K. E., and Simpson, D.: Modelling of organic aerosols over Europe (2002–2007) using a volatility basis set (VBS) framework: application of different assumptions regarding the formation of secondary organic aerosol, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 8499–8527, doi:10.5194/acp-12-8499-2012, 2012.; Boy, M., Hellmuth, O., Korhonen, H., Nilsson, E. D., ReVelle, D...

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So2 Oxidation Products Other Than H2So4 as a Trigger of New Partic...

By: A. Ruuskanen; F. Arnold; F. Stratmann; C. D. O’dowd; J. Ücker; Y. Viisanen; I. Riipinen; M. Hanke; T. Berndt; R. Janson; B. Umann; S. Mikkonen; T. Petäjä; S.-l. Sihto; K. Sellegri; A. Laaksonen; P. Aalto; K. E. J. Lehtinen; M. Kulmala; M. Dal Maso

Description: University of Kuopio, Department of Physics, POB 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland. Atmospheric new particle formation is generally thought to occur due to homogeneous or ion-induced nucleation of sulphuric acid. We compare ambient nucleation rates with laboratory data from nucleation experiments involving either sulphuric acid or oxidized SO2. Atmospheric nucleation occurs at H2SO4 concentrations 2–4 orders of magnitude lower ...

Ball, S. M., Hanson, D. R., Eisele, F. I., and. McMurry P. H.: Laboratory studies of particle nucleation: Initial results for H2SO4, H2O, and NH3 vapors, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 23 709–23 718, 1999.; Berndt, T., Böge, O., Stratmann, F., Heintzenberg, J., and Kulmala M.:, Rapid formation of sulfuric acid particles at near-atmospheric conditions, Science, 307, 698–700, 2005.; Berndt, T., Böge, O., and Stratmann, F.: Formation of a...

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Carbon Monoxide (Co) and Ethane (C2H6) Trends from Ground-based So...

By: E. Mahieu; P. Duchatelet; J. Angelbratt; F. Hase; F. Forster; U. Raffalski; J. Mellqvist; C. Servais; T. Blumenstock; R. Sussman; T. Borsdorff; T. Warneke; D. Simpson; A. K. Petersen; J. E. Jonson; J. Notholt

Description: Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden. Trends in the CO and C2H6 partial columns (~0–15 km) have been estimated from four European ground-based solar FTIR stations for the 1996–2006 time period. The CO trends from the four stations Jungfraujoch, Zugspitze, Harestua and Kiruna have been estimated to −0.45±0.16 % yr−1, −1.00±0.24 % yr−1, −0.62±0.19 % yr−1 and −0.61±0.16 % yr−1...

Aikin, A. C., Herman, J. R., Maier, E. J., and Mcquillan, C. J.: Atmospheric Chemistry of Ethane and Ethylene, J. Geophys. Res.-Ocean. Atmos., 87, 3105–3118, 1982.; Andersson-Skold, Y. and Simpson, D.: Comparison of the chemical schemes of the EMEP MSC-W and IVL photochemical trajectory models, Atmos. Environ., 33, 1111–1129, 1999.; Blake, D. R. and Rowland, F. S.: Global Atmospheric Concentrations and Source Strength of Ethane, Nature, 321, 231–233, 1986.; Angelbratt, J...

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Long-term Changes in the Upper Stratospheric Ozone at Syowa, Antar...

By: I. Petropavlovskikh; C. Long; G. L. Manney; R. D. Evans; K. Miyagawa; J. Wild; W. H. Daffer

Description: Japan Meteorological Agency, Aerological Observatory, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0052, Japan. Analyses of stratospheric ozone data determined from Dobson–Umkehr measurements since 1977 at the Syowa (69.0° S, 39.6° E), Antarctica, station show a significant decrease in ozone at altitudes higher than that of the 4 hPa pressure level during the 1980s and 1990s. Ozone values over Syowa have remained low since 2001. The time series of upper stratospheric ozone fr...

L'Heureux, M. L. and Thompson, D. W. J.: Observed relationships between the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the extratropical zonal-mean circulation, J. Climate, 19, 276–287, 2006.; Li, F., Newman, P. A., and Stolarski, R. S.: Relationships between the Brewer-Dobson circulation and the southern annular mode during austral summer in coupled chemistry-climate model simulations, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D15106, doi:10.1029/2009J...

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On the Distribution of Relative Humidity in Cirrus Clouds : Volume...

By: H. G. J. Smit; J. Ovarlez; P. Spichtinger; K. Gierens; J.-f. Gayet

Description: Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany. We have analysed relative humidity statistics from measurements in cirrus clouds taken unintentionally during the Measurement of OZone by Airbus In-service airCraft project (MOZAIC). The shapes of the in-cloud humidity distributions change from nearly symmetric in relatively warm cirrus (warmer than −40°C) to considerably positively skew (i.e. ...

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Understanding Evolution of Product Composition and Volatility Dist...

By: C. J. Hennigan; D. R. Worton; N. M. Kreisberg; A. H. Goldstein; A. L. Robinson; A. P. Teng; S. V. Hering; G. Isaacman; N. M. Donahue

Description: Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA. A method for predicting volatility and polarity based on chromatographic information was developed and applied to the smog chamber ozonolysis of the sesquiterpene longifolene. The products were collected and analyzed using a GC × GC Thermal Desorption Aerosol Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer (2D-TAG) and a quadrupole Aerodyne Aerosol Mass S...

Aiken, A. C., DeCarlo, P. F., Kroll, J. H., Worsnop, D. R., Huffman, J. A., Docherty, K. S., Ulbrich, I. M., Mohr, C., Kimmel, J. R., Sueper, D., Sun, Y., Zhang, Q., Trimborn, A. M., Northway, M., Ziemann, P. J., Canagaratna, M. R., Onasch, T. B., Alfarra, M. R., Prevot, A. S., Dommen, J., Duplissy, J., Metzger, A., Baltensperger, U., and Jimenez, J. L.: O/C and OM/OC Ratios of Primary, Secondary, and Ambient Organic Aerosols with High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol M...

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Simulated Radiative Forcing from Contrails and Contrail Cirrus : V...

By: A. Gettelman; C.-c. Chen

Description: National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder CO 80307-3000, USA. A comprehensive general circulation model including ice supersaturation is used to estimate the climate impact of aviation induced contrails. The model uses a realistic aviation emissions inventory for 2006 to initiate contrails, and allows them to evolve consistently with the model hydrologic cycle.

The radiative forcing from linear contrails ...

Appleman, H.: The formation of exhaust condensation trails by jet aircraft, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 34, 14–20, 1953.; Barrett, S., et al.: Guidance on the use of AEDT gridded aircraft emissions in atmospheric models, version 2.0, Tech. rep., Federal Aviation Administration, 2010.; Burkhardt, U. and Kächer, B.: Global radiative forcing from contrail cirrus, Nature, 1, 54–58, doi:10.1038/NCLIMATE1068, 2011.; Burkhardt, U., ...

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Naturally Driven Variability in the Global Secondary Organic Aeros...

By: M. Kanakidou; J. Lathière; K. Tsigaridis; D. A. Hauglustaine

Description: Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, POBox 1470, 71409 Heraklion, Greece. In order to investigate the variability of the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) distributions and budget and provide a measure for the robustness of the conclusions on human induced changes of SOA, a global 3-dimensional chemistry transport model describing both the gas and the particulate phase chemistry of the troposphere has b...

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Investigation of Ship-plume Chemistry Using a Newly-developed Phot...

By: C. H. Song; H. S. Kim; R. S. Park

Description: Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju, Korea. A photochemical ship-plume model, which can consider the ship-plume dynamics and ship-plume chemistry, simultaneously, was developed to gain a better understanding of atmospheric impact of ship emissions. The model performance was then evaluated by a comparison with the observation data measured on a NOAA WP-3D flight during the Interc...

Abbatt, J. P. D. and Waschewsky, G. C. G.: Heterogeneous interactions of HOBr, HNO3, O3, and NO2 with deliquescent NaCl aerosols at room temperature, J. Phys. Chem. A, 102, 3719–3725, 1998.; Brasseur, G. P., Orlando, J. J., and Tyndall, G. S.: Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Change, Oxford University Press, New York, USA, 1999.; Atkinson, R., Baulch, D. L., Cox, R. A., Hampson Jr., R. F., Kerr, J. A., Rossi, M. J., and Troe, J.: Evaluate...

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The Scavenging Processes Controlling the Seasonal Cycle in Arctic ...

By: O. Boucher; J. Browse; S. R. Arnold; K. Pringle; K. S. Carslaw

Description: Institute of climate and atmospheric studies, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK. The seasonal cycle in Arctic aerosol is typified by high concentrations of large aged anthropogenic particles transported from lower latitudes in the late Arctic winter and early spring followed by a sharp transition to low concentrations of locally sourced smaller particles in the summer. However, multi-model assessments show th...

Arnold, S., Chipperfield, M., and Blitz, M.: A three-dimensional model study of the effect of new temperature-dependent quantum yields for acetone photolysis, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D22305, doi:10.1029/2005JD005998, 2005.; Baumgardner, D., Subramanian, R., Twohy, C., Stith, J., and Kok, G.: Scavenging of black carbon by ice crystals over the northern Pacific, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L22815,

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Heterogeneous Reactions of Carbonyl Sulfide on Mineral Oxides: Mec...

By: J. Ma; H. He; Y. Liu

Description: State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China. The heterogeneous reactions of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) on the typical mineral oxides in the mineral dust particles were investigated using a Knudsen cell flow reactor and an in situ diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy. The reaction pathway for OCS on mineral dust was identified based on...

Anderson, T. L., Charison, R. J., Schwartz, S. E., Knutti, R., Boucher, O., Rodhe, H., Heintzenberg, J.: Climate forcing by aerosols – a hazy picture, Science, 300, 1103–1104, 2003.; Andreae, M. O. and Crutzen, P. J.: Atmospheric aerosols: Biogeochemical sources and role in atmospheric chemistry, Science, 276, 1052–1058, 1997.; Aubin, D. G. and Abbatt, J. P.: Laboratory measurements of thermodynamics of adsorption of small aromatic gases to n–hexane soot surfaces, Enviro...

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Comparison of the Hadgem2 Climate-chemistry Model Against in Situ ...

By: C. Prigent; M. Chipperfield; O. Schneising; G. D. Hayman; J. P. Burrows; M. Buchwitz; N. Gedney; D. B. Clark; F. M. O'Connor; M. Dalvi; C. Huntingford; C. Wilson; N. Richards

Description: Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, OX10 8BB, UK. Wetlands are a major emission source of methane (CH4) globally. In this study, we evaluate wetland emission estimates derived using the UK community land surface model (JULES, the Joint UK Land Earth Simulator) against atmospheric observations of methane, including, for the first time, total methane columns derived from the SCIAMACHY instrument on board the E...

Beck, V., Gerbig, C., Koch, T., Bela, M. M., Longo, K. M., Freitas, S. R., Kaplan, J. O., Prigent, C., Bergamaschi, P. and Heimann, M.: WRF-Chem simulations in the Amazon region during wet and dry season transitions: evaluation of methane models and wetland inundation maps, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7961–7982, doi:10.5194/acp-13-7961-2013, 2013.; Beer, R.: TES on the aura mission: scientific objectives, measurements, a...

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Insights Into Characteristics, Sources, and Evolution of Submicron...

By: L. L. Tang; H. X. Yu; Z. Wang; H. C. Zhou; Y. J. Zhang; Y. L. Sun; D. Liu; W. Qin; H. L. Zhang; A. S. H. Prévôt; F. Canonaco

Description: Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment Monitoring and Pollution Control, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China. Atmospheric submicron particulate matter (PM1) is one of the most significant pollution components in China. Despite its current popularity in the studies of aerosol chemistry, the characteristics, sources and evolution of atmospheric...

Aiken, A. C., Decarlo, P. F., Kroll, J. H., Worsnop, D. R., Huffman, J. A., Docherty, K. S., Ulbrich, I. M., Mohr, C., Kimmel, J. R., Sueper, D., Sun, Y., Zhang, Q., Trimborn, A., Northway, M., Ziemann, P. J., Canagaratna, M. R., Onasch, T. B., Alfarra, M. R., Prevot, A. S. H., Dommen, J., Duplissy, J., Metzger, A., Baltensperger, U., and Jimenez, J. L.: O/C and OM/OC ratios of primary, secondary, and ambient organic aerosols with high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol m...

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Corrigendum to the Tropical Forest and Fire Emissions Experiment: ...

By: A. Guenther; T. J. Christian; T. G. Karl; R. J. Yokelson

Description: University of Montana, Department of Chemistry, Missoula, MT, USA. No abstract available.

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In-situ Observation of Asian Pollution Transported Into the Arctic...

By: A. Schäfler; F. Arnold; H. Huntrieser; H. Aufmhoff; C. Schiller; M. Lazzara; H. Schlager; O. R. Cooper; K. S. Law; A. Stohl; J. Burkhart; M. Scheibe; A. Roiger; H. Sodemann

Description: Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany. On a research flight on 10 July 2008, the German research aircraft Falcon sampled an air mass with unusually high carbon monoxide (CO), peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and water vapour (H2O) mixing ratios in the Arctic lowermost stratosphere. The air mass was encountered twice at an altitude of 11.3 km, ~800 m above the dynamical tropopause. I...

Akimoto, H.: Global air quality and Pollution, Science, 302, 1716, doi:10.1126/science.1092666, 2003.; Boering, K. A., Wofsy, S. C., Daube, B. C., Schneider, H. R., Loewenstein, M., Podolske, J. R., and Conway, T. J.: Stratospheric Mean Ages and Transport Rates from Observations of Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide, Science, 274(5291), 1340–1343, doi:10.1126/scien...

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Study of Spatiotemporal Variation of Atmospheric Mercury and Its H...

By: Y. Pervez; A. Koshle; S. Pervez

Description: School of Studies in Chemistry Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, CG, 492010, India. Mercury release by coal combustion has been significantly increased in India. Mercury content in coal has been analyzed to 0.272 ppm by Central Pollution Control Board. Toxicological effects of elemental Hg (Hg0) exposure include respiratory and renal failures, cardiac arrest, and cerebral oedema, while subclinical exposure may induce kidney, behaviora...

Adgate, J. L., Mongin, S. J., Pratt, G. C., Zhang, J., Field, M. P., Ramachandran, G., and Sexton, K.: Relationships between personal, indoor, and outdoor exposures to trace elements in PM(2.5), Sci. Total Environ., 386, 21–32, 2007.; Adimado, A. A. and Baah, D. A.: Mercury in human blood, urine, hair, nail and fish from the Ankobra and Tano river basins in southwestern Ghana, Bull. Environ. Contam. Tox., 68, 339–346, 2002.; Airey, D.: Contributions from Coal and Industr...

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Long-term Observation of Mass-independent Oxygen Isotope Anomaly i...

By: F. Nakagawa; U. Tsunogai; S. Kudo; T. Gamo; S. Aoki; S. Kawagucci; H. Honda; T. Nakazawa; M. Tsutsumi

Description: Earth and Planetary System Sciences, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan. Stratospheric and upper tropospheric air samples were collected during 1994–2004 over Sanriku, Japan and in 1997 over Kiruna, Sweden. Using these archived air samples, we determined the triple oxygen-isotope composition of stratospheric CO2 and the N2O mixing ratio. The maximum Δ17OCO2 value of +12.2‰, resem...

Alexander, B., Vollmer, M. K., Jackson, T., Weiss, R. F., and Thiemens, M. H.: Stratospheric CO2 isotopic anomalies and SF$_6$ and CFC tracer concentrations in the arctic polar vortex, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 4103–4106, 2001.; Aoki, S., Nakazawa, T., Machida, T., Sugawara, S., Morimoto, S., Hashida, G., Yamanouchi, T., Kawamura, K., and Honda, H.: Carbon dioxide variations in the stratosphere over Japan, Scandinavia and Antarctica, Tellus B, 55, 178–186, 2003...

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Using an Extended Kalman Filter Learning Algorithm for Feed-forwar...

By: H. Y. Mussa; D. J. Lary

Description: Global Modelling and Assimilation Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, USA. In this study a new extended Kalman filter (EKF) learning algorithm for feed-forward neural networks (FFN) is used. With the EKF approach, the training of the FFN can be seen as state estimation for a non-linear stationary process. The EKF method gives excellent convergence performances provided that there is enough computer core memory and that the machine precision is hi...

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Secondary Organic Aerosol Production from Modern Diesel Engine Emi...

By: B. Zielinska; S. Samy

Description: Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Desert Research Institute, 2215 Raggio Pkwy., Reno, NV 89512, USA. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production was observed at significant levels in a series of modern diesel exhaust (DE) aging experiments conducted at the European Outdoor Photoreactor/Simulation Chamber (EUPHORE). The greatest production occurred in DE with toluene addition experiments (>40%), followed by DE with HCHO (for OH radical gene...

Alvarez, E. G., Viidanoja, J., Munoz, A., Wirtz, K., and Hjorth, J.: Experimental confirmation of the dicarbonyl route in the photo-oxidation of toluene and benzene, Environ. Sci. Technol., 41, 8362–8369, 2007.; Arey, J.: Atmospheric reactions of PAHs including formation of nitroarenes, in: The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, Vol. 3, Part I, PAHs and Related Compounds, edited by: Neilson, A. H., Springer-Verlag, Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 347–385, 1998.; Atkinson, ...

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Equatorial Transport as Diagnosed from Nitrous Oxide Variability :...

By: E. Le Flochmoën; J.-l. Attié; V.-h. Peuch; P. Ricaud; M. P. Chipperfield; L. El Amraoui; H. Teyssèdre; W. Feng; J.-p. Pommereau

Description: Université de Toulouse, Laboratoire d'Aérologie, CNRS UMR 5560, Toulouse, France. The mechanisms of transport on annual, semi-annual and quasi-biennial time scales in the equatorial (10° S–10° N) stratosphere are investigated using the nitrous oxide (N2O) measurements of the space-borne ODIN Sub-Millimetre Radiometer from November 2001 to June 2005, and the simulations of the three-dimensional chemical transport models MOCAGE and SLIMCAT. Bot...

Baldwin, M. P., Gray, L. J., Dunkerton, T. J., et al.: The Quasi-Biennial Oscillation, Rev. Geophys., 39, 179–229, 2001.; Barret, B., Ricaud, P., Santee, M. L., et al.: Intercomparisons of trace gases profiles from the Odin/SMR and Aura/MLS limb sounders, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D21302, doi:10.1029/2006JD007305, 2006.; Betchold, P., Bazile, E., Guichard, F., et al.: A mass flux convection scheme for regional and global models, Q. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 127, 869–886, 2001...

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