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Data Assimilation of Dust Aerosol Observations for the Cuace/Dust ...

By: G. F. Zhu; H. L. Liu; T. Niu; Y. Q. Wang; X. Q. Hu; C. H. Zhou; S. L. Gong

Description: Center for Atmosphere Watch & Services (CAWAS), Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, China Meteorological Administration (CMA), Beijing 100081, China. A data assimilation system (DAS) was developed for the Chinese Unified Atmospheric Chemistry Environment – Dust (CUACE/Dust) forecast system and applied in the operational forecasts of sand and dust storm (SDS) in spring 2006. The system is based on a three dimensional variational method (3D-Var) an...

Alpert, P., Krichak, S. O., Tsidulko, M., Shafir, H. and Joseph, J. H.: A Dust Prediction System with TOMS Initialization, Mon. Weather Rev., 130, 2335–2345, 2002.; Barker, D. M., Huang, W., Guo, Y.-R. and Bourgeois, A.: A three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) data assimilation system for use with MM5. NCAR Tech. Note. NCAR/TN-453 1 STR, 68 pp. [Available from UCAR Communications, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307.], 2003.; Bengtsson, L.: Dynamic Meteorology:Data Assimila...

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Modelling the Partitioning of Ammonium Nitrate in the Convective B...

By: H. Coe; M. Schaap; W. T. Morgan; J. M. J. Aan De Brugh; M. C. Krol; J. S. Henzing

Description: Meteorology and Air Quality Section, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands. An explanatory model study is presented on semi-volatile secondary inorganic aerosols on three clear days in May 2008 during the IMPACT campaign at the Cabauw tower in the Netherlands. A single column model in combination with the equilibrium aerosol model ISORROPIA is used. This model uses surface observations from IMPACT and calculates the gas-aerosol partitioning ...

Anderson, T. L., Covert, D. S., Marshall, S. F., Laucks, M. L., Charlson, R. J., Waggoner, A. P., Ogren, J. A., Caldow, R., Holm, R. L., Quant, F. R., Sem, G. J., Wiedensohler, A., Ahlquist, N. A., and Bates, T. S.: Performance characteristics of a high-sensitivity, three-wavelength, total scatter/backscatter nephelometer, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 13, 967–986, 2.0;2>doi:10.1175/1520-0426(1996)013<0967:PCOAHS...

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Multi-model Simulations of the Impact of International Shipping on...

By: O. Wild; A. Lauer; W. J. Collins; F. J. Dentener; A. Richter; M. Sanderson; M. G. Lawrence; K. Sudo; D. S. Stevenson; S. E. Strahan; V. Eyring; I. S. A. Isaksen; T. P. C. Van Noije; K. Ellingsen; T. Butler; S. Szopa; D. A. Hauglustaine; J. M. Rodriguez; M. Gauss

Description: DLR, Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany. The global impact of shipping on atmospheric chemistry and radiative forcing, as well as the associated uncertainties, have been quantified using an ensemble of ten state-of-the-art atmospheric chemistry models and a pre-defined set of emission data. The analysis is performed for present-day conditions (year 2000) and for two future ship emission scenarios. In one scenario ship emission...

Beirle, S., Platt, U., von Glasow, R., Wenig, M., and Wagner T.: Estimate of nitrogen oxide emissions from shipping by satellite remote sensing, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L18102, doi:10.1029/2004GL020312, 2004.; Bey, I., Jacob, D. J., Yantosca, R. M., et al.: Global modelling of tropospheric chemistry with assimilated meteorology: Model description and evaluation, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 23 073–23 095, 2001.; Brasseur, G., Cox, R., Hauglustaine, D. A., Isaksen, I. S. A., L...

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Sciamachy Level1 Data: Calibration Concept and In-flight Calibrati...

By: L. G. Tilstra; C. E. Sioris; Q. Kleipool; R. Jongma; J. Skupin; J. M. Krijger; A. Piters; A. M. S. Gloudemans; S. Noël; G. Van Soest; R. W. M. Hoogeveen; H. Bovensmann; G. Lichtenberg; H. Schrijver; K. Chance; R. Van Hees; J. R. Acarreta; B. Ahlers; M. Wuttke; I. Aben; P. Stammes; C. Schrijvers; S. Slijkhuis

Description: SRON National Institute of Space Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands. This paper discusses the basic concept of the calibration of the SCIAMACHY instrument and remaining open issues. SCIAMACHY is a scanning Limb/Nadir spectrometer covering the wavelength range from 212 nm to 2386 nm. It was launched on-board ENVISAT in February 2002. In general the instrument performance is excellent: It performs as tested on ground and there is only very minor degradati...

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On the Formation of Radiation Fogs Under Heavily Polluted Conditio...

By: A Laaksonen; S. Romakkaniemi; H. Kokkola

Description: Department of Applied Physics, University of Kuopio, Finland. We have studied the effect of gaseous pollutants on fog droplet growth in heavily polluted air using a model that describes time-dependent sulfate production in the liquid phase and thermodynamical equilibrium between the droplets and the gas phase. Our research indicates that the oxidation of  SO2 to sulfate has a significant effect on fog droplet growth especially when hyg...

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Trace Elements in South America Aerosol During 20Th Century Inferr...

By: R. J. Delmas; B. Dupré; J. C. Simões; J.-d. Taupin; P. Artaxo; A. Correia; R. Freydier

Description: Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. A 137 m ice core drilled in 1999 from Eastern Bolivian Andes at the summit of Nevado Illimani (16° 37' S, 67° 46' W, 6350 m a.s.l.) was analyzed at high temporal resolution, allowing a characterization of trace elements in Andean aerosol trapped in the ice during the 20th century. The upper 50 m of the ice core were dated by multi-proxy analysis of stable isotopes (d...

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Boundary Layer Dynamics Over London, Uk, as Observed Using Doppler...

By: E. G. Nemitz; F. Davies; C. R. Wood; J. F. Barlow; E. O'Connor; M. W. Gallagher; T. M. Dunbar; R. M. Harrison

Description: Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, P.O. Box 243, Reading, RG6 6BB, UK. Urban boundary layers (UBLs) can be highly complex due to the heterogeneous roughness and heating of the surface, particularly at night. Due to a general lack of observations, it is not clear whether canonical models of boundary layer mixing are appropriate in modelling air quality in urban areas. This paper reports Doppler lidar observations of turbulence profi...

Al-Jiboori, M. H., Xu, Y., and Qian, Y.: Local similarity relationships in the urban boundary layer, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 102, 63–82, 2002.; Angevine, W. M., White, A. B., Senff, C. J., Trainer, M., Banta, R. M., and Ayoub, M. A.: Urban-rural contrasts in mixing height and cloudiness over Nashville in 1999, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D3), 4092, doi: 10.1029/2001JD001061, 2003.; Argentini, S., Mastrantonio G., and Lena, F.: Case studies of the wintertime convective boundary-...

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Factors Controlling Arctic Denitrification in Cold Winters of the ...

By: S. Davies; M. P. Chipperfield; K. S. Carslaw; G. W. Mann

Description: Institute for Atmospheric Science, School of the Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK. Denitrification of the Arctic winter stratosphere has been calculated using a 3-D microphysical model for the winters 1994/95, 1995/96, 1996/97 and 1999/2000. Denitrification is assumed to occur through the sedimentation of low number concentrations of large nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) particles, as observed extensively in 1999/2000. We examine whether ...

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Greenhouse Gas Network Design Using Backward Lagrangian Particle D...

By: P. J. Rayner; P. Fraser; A. Nickless; R. M. Law; T. Ziehn; G. Roff

Description: Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, VIC 3195, Australia. This paper describes the generation of optimal atmospheric measurement networks for determining carbon dioxide fluxes over Australia using inverse methods. A Lagrangian particle dispersion model is used in reverse mode together with a Bayesian inverse modelling framework to calculate the relationship between weekly surface fluxes, ...

Asefi-Najafabady, S., Rayner, P. J., Gurney, K. R., McRobert, A., Song, Y., Coltin, K., Elvidge, C., and Baugh, K.: A new global gridded dataset of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion: methodology, evaluation and analysis, J. Geophys. Res., in review, 2014.; Bureau of Meteorology National Radar Loop: Weather Watch Radars, available at: http://www.bom.gov.au/australia/radar/ (last access: 17 March 2014), ...

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Emission Trends and Mitigation Options for Air Pollutants in East ...

By: M. B. McElroy; Z. Klimont; S. Y. Cai; B. Zhao; J. Y. Xu; J. M. Hao; X. Fu; T. Morikawa; Y. Kim; K. B. He; S. X. Wang; C. Nielsen; J. H. Woo

Description: School of Environment, and State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. Emissions of air pollutants in East Asia play an important role in the regional and global atmospheric environment. In this study we evaluated the recent emission trends of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matters (PM), and non-methane volatile organic compound...

Amann, M., Bertok, I., Borken-Kleefeld, J., Cofala, J., Heyes, C., Hoglund-Isaksson, L., Klimont, Z., Nguyen, B., Posch, M., Rafaj, P., Sandler, R., Schopp, W., Wagner, F., and Winiwarter, W.: Cost-effective control of air quality and greenhouse gases in Europe: modeling and policy applications, Environ. Modell. Softw., 26, 1489–1501, doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2011.07.012, 2011.; China Electric Power Yearbook Commit...

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A Model Tool for Assessing Real-time Mixing of Mineral and Anthrop...

By: N. Sugimoto; C. Bouet; X. Dong; G. Cautenet; Y. J. Kim; F. Lasserre; I. Matsui; A. Shimizu

Description: Laboratoire de Météorologie Physique, Université Blaise Pascal, Complexe scientifique des Cézeaux, BP 45, 63170, Aubière, France. In order to assess the complex mixing of atmospheric anthropogenic and natural pollutants over the East Asian region, we present a modelling tool which takes into account the main aerosols which are to be found simultaneously over China, Korea and Japan during springtime. Using the mesoscale RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling...

Adams, J. W., Rodriguez, D., and Cox, R. A.: The uptake of SO2 on Saharan dust: A flow tube study, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 2679–2689, 2005.; Alfaro, S. C., Gaudichet, A., Gomes, L., and Maille, M.: Mineral aerosol production by wind erosion: Aerosol particle sizes and binding energies, Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 991–994, 1998.; Alfaro, S. C. and Gomes, L.: Modeling mineral aerosol production by wind erosion: Emission intensities and aerosol distributions in source...

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Potential Climate Forcing of Land Use and Land Cover Change : Volu...

By: S. Kloster; N. M. Mahowald; D. S. Ward

Description: Earth and Atmospheric Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA. Pressure on land resources is expected to increase as global population continues to climb and the world becomes more affluent, swelling the demand for food. Changing climate may exert additional pressures on natural lands as present-day productive regions may shift, or soil quality may degrade, and the recent rise in demand for biofuels increases competition with edible crops for...

Albani, S., Mahowald, N. M., Perry, A. T., Scanza, R. A., Zender, C. S., Heavens, N. G., Maggi, V., Kok, J. F., and Otto-Bliesner, B. L.: Improved dust representation in the Community Atmosphere Model, Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 6, 1–30, doi:10.1002/2013MS000279, 2014.; Allen, M. R., Frame, D. J., Huntingford, C., Jones, C. D., Lowe, J. A., Meinshausen, M., and Meinshausen, N.: Warming caused by cumul...

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Multi-species Inversion of Ch4, Co and H2 Emissions from Surface M...

By: F. Chevallier; S. Szopa; P. Bousquet; D. Hauglustaine; I. Pison

Description: Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, UMR1572, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, IPSL, Gif-sur-Yvette, France. In order to study the spatial and temporal variations of the emissions of greenhouse gases and of their precursors, we developed a data assimilation system and applied it to infer emissions of CH4, CO and H2 for one year. It is based on an atmospheric chemical transport model and on a simplified scheme for the oxidation ch...

Bergamaschi, P., Frankenberg, F., Meirink, J F., Krol, M., Dentener, F., Wagner, T., Platt, U., Kaplan, J O., Körner, S., Heimann, M., Dlugokencky, E J., and Goede, A.: Satellite chartography of atmospheric methane from SCIAMACHY on board ENVISAT: 2. Evaluation based on inverse model simulations, J. Geophys. Res., 112, \doi10.1029/2006JD007268, 2007.; Boucher, O., Moulin, C., Belviso, S., Aumont, O., Bopp, L., Cosme, E., von Kuhlmann, R., Lawrence, M G., Pham, M., Reddy,...

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Global Distribution of Upper Tropospheric Formic Acid from the Ace...

By: P. F. Bernath; G. C. Toon; G. González Abad; G. L. Manney; C. D. Boone; S. D. McLeod

Description: Department of Chemistry, University of York, York, UK. We present the first near global upper tropospheric distribution of formic acid (HCOOH) observed from the space using solar occultation measurements from the Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) on board the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite. Using a new set of spectroscopic line parameters recently published for formic acid, we have retrieved the concentrations of HCOOH between 5 km ...

Andreae, M. O., Talbot, R. W., Andreae, T. W., and Harris, R. C.: Formic and Acetic Acid over the Central Amazon Region, Brazil, 1. Dry Season, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 1616–1624, 1988.; Andreae, M. O. and Merlet, P.: Emission of Trace Gases and Aerosols from Biomass Burning, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 15(4), 955–966, 2001.; Bernath, P. F.: Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE): Analytical Chemistry from Orbit, TRAC-Trend. Anal. Chem., 25, 647–654, 2006.; Atkinson, R., Baulch...

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Size-segregated Mass Distributions of Aerosols Over Eastern Medite...

By: G. Kouvarakis; N. Kalivitis; E. Koulouri; E. Gerasopoulos; R. Hillamo; S. Saarikoski; N. Mihalopoulos; T. Mäkelä

Description: Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003 Heraklion, Greece. This work provides long-term (2004–2006) size segregated measurements of aerosol mass at a remote coastal station in the southern Europe, with the use of size-selective samplings (SDI impactor). Seven distinct modes were identified in the range 0–10 µm and the dominant were the Accumulation 1 (0.25–0.55 µm) and the Coarse 2 (...

Andreae, T. W., Andreae, M. O., Ichoku, C., Maenhaut, W., Cafmayer, J., Karnieli, A., and Orlovsky, L.: Light Scattering by dust and anthropogenic aerosol at a remote site in the Negev Desert, Israel, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D2), 4008, doi:10.1029/2001JD900252, 2002.; Dubovik, O. and King, M. D.: A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 20 673–20 696, 2000.; Dubovik, O., Smirno...

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A New Feedback Mechanism Linking Forests, Aerosols, and Climate : ...

By: Ü. Rannik; M. Boy; M. Dal Maso; A. Reissell; P. Aalto; J. Bäck; K. E. J. Lehtinen; T. Vesala; T. Hoffmann; H. Hakola; P. Keronen; M. Kulmala; P. Hari; T. Suni

Description: University of Helsinki, Department of Physical Sciences, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki, Finland. The possible connections between the carbon balance of ecosystems and aerosol-cloud-climate interactions play a significant role in climate change studies. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas, whereas the net effect of atmospheric aerosols is to cool the climate. Here, we investigated the connection between forest-atmosphere carbon exchange an...

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The Impact of Polar Stratospheric Ozone Loss on Southern Hemispher...

By: J. Keeble; P. Braesicke; J. A. Pyle; N. L. Abraham; H. K. Roscoe

Description: Chemistry Department, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. The impact of polar stratospheric ozone loss resulting from chlorine activation on polar stratospheric clouds is examined using a pair of model integrations run with the fully coupled chemistry climate model UM-UKCA. Suppressing chlorine activation through heterogeneous reactions is found to produce modelled ozone differences consistent with observed ozone differences between the present and ...

Arblaster, J. M. and Meehl, G. A.: Contributions of external forcings to Southern Annular Mode trends, J. Climate, 19, 2896–2905, doi:10.1175/JCLI3774.1, 2006.; Braesicke, P., Hurwitz, M. M., and Pyle, J. A.: The stratospheric response to changes in ozone and carbon dioxide as modelled with a GCM including parameterised ozone chemistry, Meteorol. Z., 15, 343–354, doi:10...

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A Novel Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer with Organic Vapor T...

By: P. Vaattovaara; A. Laaksonen; K. Hämeri; J. Joutsensaari

Description: Department of Applied Physics, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland. A novel method to characterize the organic composition of aerosol particles has been developed. The method is based on organic vapor interaction with aerosol particles and it has been named an Organic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (OTDMA). The OTDMA method has been tested for inorganic (sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate) and organic (citric acid and...

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Global Risk from the Atmospheric Dispersion of Radionuclides by Nu...

By: J. Lelieveld; Y. Proestos; T. Christoudias

Description: The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia, Cyprus. We estimate the global risk from the release and atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides from nuclear power plant accidents using the EMAC atmospheric chemistry–general circulation model. We included all nuclear reactors that are currently operational, under construction and planned or proposed. We implemented constant continuous emissions from each location in the model and simulated atmospheric transport a...

Anspaugh, L., Catlin, R., and Goldman, M.: The global impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident, Science, 242, 1513–1519, 1988.; Arnold, D., Gufler, K., Kromp, W., Kromp-Kolb, H., Mraz, G., Seibert, P., Sholly, S., Sutter, P., and Wenisch, A.: flexRISK – Flexible tools for assessment of nuclear risk in Europe, in: Air Pollution Modeling and its Application XXI, Springer, 737–740, 2012.; Christoudias, T. and Lelieveld, J.: Modelling the global atmospheric transport and dep...

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Carbonaceous Aerosols in China: Top-down Constraints on Primary So...

By: S. C. Lee; Y. M. Han; X. Y. Zhang; D. Chen; T.-m. Fu; Y. X. Wang; D. K. Henze; Q. Zhang; W. J. Qu; R. Zhang; Z. Han; J. J. Cao

Description: Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences and Laboratory for Climate and Ocean-Atmosphere Studies, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing, China. We simulate elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) aerosols in China and compare model results to surface measurements at Chinese rural and background sites, with the goal of deriving top-down emission estimates of EC and OC, as well as better quantifying the secondary sources of OC. We inclu...

Bond, T. C., Streets, D. G., Yarber, K. F., Nelson, S. M., Woo, J.-H., and Klimont, Z.: A technology-based global inventory of black and organic carbon emissions from combustion, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D14203, doi:10.1029/2003JD003697, 2004.; Bond, T. C., Bhardwaj, E., Dong, R., Jogani, R., Jung, S., Roden, C., Streets, D. G., and Trautmann, N. M.: Historical emissions of black and organic carbon aerosol from energy-rela...

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