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Airborne Measurements of Nucleation Mode Particles I: Coastal Nucl...

By: H. Lihavainen; W. Junkerman; Y. J. Yoon; P. Aalto; C. D. O’dowd; M. Kulmala; Y. Viisanen

Description: Department of Physics & Environmental Change Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway, University Road, Galway, Ireland. A light aircraft was equipped with a bank of Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs) (50% cut from 3–5.4–9.6 nm) and a nano-Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (nSMPS) and deployed along the west coast of Ireland, in the vicinity of Mace Head. The objective of the exercise was to provide high resolution micro-physical measurements ...

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Impact of Climate and Land Cover Changes on Tropospheric Ozone Air...

By: Y. Fu; A. P. K. Tai

Description: Earth System Science Programme and Graduate Division of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Faculty of Science, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. Understanding how historical climate and land cover changes have affected tropospheric ozone in East Asia would help constrain the large uncertainties associated with future East Asian air quality projections. We perform a series of simulations using a global chemical transport model driven by ...

Anenberg, S. C., Horowitz, L. W., Tong, D. Q., and West, J. J.: An estimate of the global burden of anthropogenic ozone and fine particulate matter on premature human mortality using atmospheric modeling, Environ. Health Persp., 118, 1189–1195, doi:10.1289/ehp.0901220, 2010.; Bey, I., Jacob, D. J., Yantosca, R. M., Logan, J. A., Field, B. D., Fiore, A. M., Li, Q., Liu, H. Y., Mickley, L. J., and Schultz, M. G.: Global mod...

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Concentrations of Oh and Ho2 Radicals During Namblex: Measurements...

By: G. P. Johnson; W. J. Bloss; J. D. Lee; S. C. Smith; D. E. Heard

Description: School of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK. OH and HO2 concentrations were measured simultaneously at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station in the summer of 2002 during the NAMBLEX (North Atlantic Marine Boundary Layer EXperiment) field campaign. OH was measured by laser-induced fluorescence employing the FAGE (Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion) technique, with a mean daytime detection limit of 2.7×105 mole...

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Evaluation of the Use of Five Laboratory Determined Ozone Absorpti...

By: A. Redondas; M. Weber; U. Köhler; R. Evans; R. Stuebi

Description: Izaña Atmospheric Research Center, AEMET, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. The primary ground-based instruments used to report total column ozone (TOC) are Brewer and Dobson Spectrophotometers, in separate networks. These instruments make measurements of the UV irradiances, and through a well-defined process a TOC value is produced. Inherent in the algorithm is the use of a laboratory determined cross-section data set. We used five ozone cross section d...

Vanier, J. and Wardle, D. I.: The effects of spectral resolution on total ozone measurements, Q. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 95, 395–399, doi:10.1002/qj.49709540411, 1969.; Weber, M., Chehade, W., and Spietz, P.: Impact of ozone cross-section choice on WFDOAS total ozone retrieval applied to GOME, SCIAMACHY, and GOME2 (1995–present), in: Contribution to ACSO.(IGACO Activity: Absorption Cross-Sections for Ozone), Vol. 2, p....

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Measuring Atmospheric Naphthalene with Laser-induced Fluorescence ...

By: X. Ren; R. L. Lesher; H. Harder; W. H. Brune; M. Martinez

Description: Department of Meteorology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA. A new method for measuring gas-phase naphthalene in the atmosphere is based on laser-induced fluorescence at low pressure. The fluorescence spectrum of naphthalene near 308 nm was identified. Naphthalene fluorescence quenching by N2, O2 and H2O was investigated in the laboratory. No significant quenching was found for...

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Homogeneous Vs. Heterogeneous Nucleation in Water-dicarboxylic Aci...

By: M. Kulmala; I. Riipinen; H. Vehkamäki; A. I. Hienola

Description: Department of Physics, Division of Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland. Binary heterogeneous nucleation of water-succinic/glutaric/malonic/adipic acid on nanometer-sized particles is investigated within the frame of classical heterogeneous nucleation theory. Homogeneous nucleation is also included for comparison. It is found that the nucleation probabilities depend on the contact ...

Allan, J D., Alfarra, M R., Bower, K N., Coe, H., Jayne, J T., Worsnop, D R., Aalto, P P., Kulmala, M., Hyötyläinen, T., Cavalli, F., and Laaksonen, A.: Size and composition measurements of background aerosol and new particle growth in a Finnish forest during QUEST 2 using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 315–327, 2006.; Fletcher, N.: Size effect in heterogeneous nucleation, J. Chem. Phys., 29, 572–576, 1958.; Fredenslund, A., Jones, R J., an...

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Temporal Variations of Flux and Altitude of Sulfur Dioxide Emissio...

By: L. Clarisse; F. Thieuleux; J.-c. Péré; D. Tanré; F. Ducos; H. Herbin; P. Goloub; C. Clerbaux; M. Boichu

Description: Laboratoire d'Optique Atmosphérique, Université Lille 1, UMR8518 CNRS, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. Sulfur-rich degassing, which is mostly composed of sulfur dioxide (SO2), plays a major role in the overall impact of volcanism on the atmosphere and climate. The accurate assessment of this impact is currently hampered by the poor knowledge of volcanic SO2 emissions. Here, using an inversion procedure, we show how assimi...

Alparone, S., Andronico, D., Lodato, L., and Sgroi, T.: Relationship between tremor and volcanic activity during the Southeast Crater eruption on Mount Etna in early 2000, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 2241, doi:10.1029/2002JB001866, 2003.; Andres, R. and Kasgnoc, A.: A time-averaged inventory of subaerial volcanic sulfur emissions, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 25251–25261, 1998.; Ansmann, A., Tesche, M., Seifert, P., Groß, S., Freud...

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The Effect of Local Sources on Particle Size and Chemical Composit...

By: A. Kortelainen; L. Hao; A. Leskinen; P. Miettinen; M. Komppula; H. Portin; A. Laaksonen; S. Romakkaniemi; A. Jaatinen; K. E. J. Lehtinen

Description: Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland. Interactions between aerosols and liquid water clouds were studied during autumns 2010–2011 at a semiurban measurement station on Puijo tower in Kuopio, Finland. Cloud interstitial and total aerosol size distributions, particle chemical composition and hygroscopicity and cloud droplet size distribution were measured, with a focus on comparing clean air masses with those affected by ...

Ahmad, I., Mielonen, T., Grosvenor, D. P., Portin, H., Arola, A., Mikkonen, S., Kühn, T., Leskinen, A., Joutsensaari J., Komppula, M., Lehtinen, K. E. J., Laaksonen, A., and Romakkaniemi, S.: Long-term measurements of cloud droplet concentrations and aerosol-cloud interactions in continental boundary layer clouds, Tellus B, 65, 20138, doi:10.3402/tellusb.v65i0.20138, 2013.; Albrecht, B. A.: Aerosols, cloud microph...

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Constraining Co2 Emissions from Open Biomass Burning by Satellite ...

By: P. Ciais; E. V. Berezin; E.-d. Schulze; J. Hadji-lazaro; G. Broquet; J. W. Kaiser; C. Clerbaux; I. B. Konovalov; M. Beekmann; M. O. Andreae

Description: Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia. A method to constrain carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from open biomass burning by using satellite observations of co-emitted species and a chemistry-transport model (CTM) is proposed and applied to the case of wildfires in Siberia. CO2 emissions are assessed by means of an emission model assuming a direct relationship between the biomass burni...

Akagi, S. K., Yokelson, R. J., Wiedinmyer, C., Alvarado, M. J., Reid, J. S., Karl, T., Crounse, J. D., and Wennberg, P. O.: Emission factors for open and domestic biomass burning for use in atmospheric models, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 4039–4072, doi:10.5194/acp-11-4039-2011, 2011.; Andreae, M. O. and Merlet, P.: Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 15, 955–966,

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Regional-scale Correlation Between Co2 Fire Emissions, Burned Area...

By: C. Crevoisier; P. Ciais; C. Rio; R. Armante; A. Chédin; F. Hourdin; N. A. Scott

Description: Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, IPSL, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau, France. Monthly mean mid-tropospheric CO2 columns are retrieved from evening and morning observations of NOAA-10 satellite over the tropics during the period 1987–1991. We find that the difference between evening and morning CO2 columns (hereafter referred to as Daily Tropospheric Excess – DTE) increases by up to a few ppm over regions...

Aardenne van, J. A., Dentener, F. J., Olivier, J. G. J., Klein Goldewijk, C. G. M., and Lelieveld, J.: A 1°×1° resolution data set of historical anthropogenic trace gas emissions for the period 1890–1990, Glob. Change Biol., 15, 909–928, 2001.; Andreae, M. O.: Emissions of trace gases and aerosols from savanna fires, in: Fire in the Southern African Savanna: Ecological and Environmental Perspectives, edited by: van Wilgen, B. W., Andreae M. O., Goldammer J. G., et al., W...

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On the Effects of Hydrocarbon and Sulphur-containing Compounds on ...

By: P. Mirabel; E. Weingartner; H. Puxbaum; U. Baltensperger; A. Petzold; S. Vrochticky; X. Vancassel; R. Hitzenberger; M. Gysel

Description: Institut fÜr Physik der AtmosphÄre, DLR Oberpfaffenhofen, 82234 Wessling, Germany. The European PartEmis project (''Measurement and prediction of emissions of aerosols and gaseous precursors from gas turbine engines'') was focussed on the characterisation and quantification of exhaust emissions from a gas turbine engine. A comprehensive suite of aerosol, gas and chemi-ion measurements were conducted under different combustor operating conditions and fuel...

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Seasonal and Diurnal Trends in Black Carbon Properties and Co-poll...

By: D. Baumgardner; G. B. Raga; J. W. Walker; A. Retama; G. R. McMeeking

Description: Dirección de Monitoreo Atmosférico, Secretaría del Medio Ambiente, Mexico City, Mexico. The Mexico City metropolitan area (MCMA) is a region that continues to grow in population and vehicular traffic as well as being the largest source of short-lived climate pollutants (SLCP) in Latin America. The local city government has made significant progress in controlling some of these pollutants, i.e., ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO), but particul...

Arnott, W. P, Moosmüller, H., and Walker, J. W.: Nitrogen Dioxide and Kerosene-Fla.me Soot Calibration of Photoacoustic Instruments for Measurement of Light Absorption by Aerosols, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 71, 4545–4552, 2000.; Arnott, W. P., Hamasha K., Moosmüller, H., Sheridan P. J., and Ogren J. A.: Towards Aerosol Light-Absorption Measurements with a 7-Wavelength Aethalometer: Evaluation with a Photoacoustic Instrument and 3-Wavelength Nephelometer, Aerosol Sci. Tech., 39...

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Identification of Gravity Wave Sources Using Reverse Ray Tracing O...

By: A. Taori; B. V. Krishna Murthy; M. Pramitha; M. Venkat Ratnam; S. Vijaya Bhaskar Rao; D. Pallamraju

Description: National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL), Gadanki, India. Reverse ray tracing method is successfully implemented for the first time in the Indian region for identification of the sources and propagation characteristics of the gravity waves observed using airglow emissions from Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E) and Hyderabad (17.5° N, 78.5° E). Wave amplitudes are also traced back for these wave events by including both radiative and d...

Alexander, M. J., Holton, J. R., and Durran, D. R.: The gravity wave response above deep convection in a squall line simulation, J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 2212–2226, 1995.; Alexander, M. J., Geller, M., McLandress, C., Polavarapu, S., Preusse, P., Sassi, F., Sato, K., Eckermann, S., Ern, M., Hertzog, A., Kawatani, Y., Pulido, M., Shaw, T. A., Sigmond, M., Vincent, R., and Watanabe, S: Recent developments in gravity-wave effects in climate models, and the global distribution of...

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The Impact of Soil Uptake on the Global Distribution of Molecular ...

By: K. Sudo; S. Yonemura; M. Takigawa; H. Yashiro

Description: Research Institute for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokohama, Japan. The molecular hydrogen (H2) in the troposphere is highly influenced by the strength of H2 uptake by the terrestrial soil surface. The global distribution of H2 and its uptake by the soil are simulated by using a model called CHemical AGCM for Study of Environment and Radiative forcing (CHASER), which incorporates a...

Andreae, M. O. and Merlet, P.: Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 15, 955–966, 2001.; Atkinson, R., Baulch, D. L., Cox, R. A., Crowley, J. N., Hampson, R. F., Hynes, R. G., Jenkin, M. E., Rossi, M. J., and Troe, J.: Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume I – gas phase reactions of Ox, HOx, NOx and SOx species, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 1461–1738, d...

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Uncertainty in Global Ccn Concentrations from Uncertain Aerosol Nu...

By: J. R. Pierce; P. J. Adams

Description: Center for Atmospheric Particle Studies, Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA, USA. The indirect effect of aerosols on climate is highly uncertain and limits our ability to assess anthropogenic climate change. The foundation of this uncertainty is uncertainty in the number of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), which itself stems from uncertainty in aerosol nucleation, primary emission and growth rates. In this paper, we use a global general circulation m...

Albrecht, B. A.: Aerosols, Cloud Microphysics, and Fractional Cloudiness, Science, 245, 1227–1230, 1989.; Ackerman, A. S., Kirkpatrick, M. P., Stevens, D. E., and Toon, O. B.: The impact of humidity above stratiform clouds on indirect aerosol climate forcing, Nature, 432, 1014–1017, 2004.; Adams, P. J. and Seinfeld, J. H.: Disproportionate impact of particulate emissions on global cloud condensation nuclei concentrations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1239, doi:10.1029/2002GL...

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Toward Unification of the Multiscale Modeling of the Atmosphere : ...

By: C.-m. Wu; A. Arakawa; J.-h. Jung

Description: University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA. This paper suggests two possible routes to achieve the unification of model physics in coarse- and fine-resolution atmospheric models. As far as representation of deep moist convection is concerned, only two kinds of model physics are used at present: highly parameterized as in the conventional general circulation models (GCMs) and explicitly simulated as in the cloud-resolving models (CRMs). Ideal...

Arakawa, A.: The cumulus parameterization problem: Past, present, and future, J. Climate, 17, 2493–2525, 2004.; Arakawa, A. and Schubert, W. H.: Interaction of a cumulus cloud ensemble with the large-scale environment. Part I, J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 674–701, 1974.; Bjerknes, V.: Das Problem der Wettervorhersage, betrachtet vom Standpunkte der Mechanik und der Physik (The problem of weather prediction, considered from the viewpoints of mechanics and physics). – Meteorol. Z. ...

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Persistent After-effects of Heavy Rain on Concentrations of Ice Nu...

By: E. K. Bigg; S. Soubeyrand; C. E. Morris

Description: 11 Wesley St., Elanora Heights, NSW 2101, Australia. Rainfall is one of the most important aspects of climate, but the extent to which atmospheric ice nuclei (IN) influence its formation, quantity, frequency, and location is not clear. Microorganisms and other biological particles are released following rainfall and have been shown to serve as efficient IN, in turn impacting cloud and precipitation formation. Here we investigated potential long-term eff...

Bigg, E. K.: A new technique for counting ice-forming nuclei in aerosols, Tellus, 9, 394–400, 1957.; Bigg, E. K.: A long period fluctuation in freezing nucleus concentration, J. Meteorol., 15, 561–562, 1958.; Bigg, E. K.: Tests for persistent effects of cloud seeding in a recent Australian experiment, J. Appl. Meteorol., 34, 2416–2411, 1995.; Bigg, E. K. and Miles, G. T.: The results of large-scale measurements of natural ice nuclei, J. Atmos. Sci., 21, 396–403, 1964.; B...

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Seasonal Variations of Water-soluble Organic Carbon, Dicarboxylic ...

By: P. Hegde; K. Kawamura

Description: Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan. Aerosol samples were collected from a high elevation mountain site (Nainital, India; 1958 m a.s.l.) in the central Himalayas, which provide an isolated platform above the planetary boundary layer to better understand the composition of the remote continental troposphere. The samples were analyzed for water-soluble dicarboxylic acids (C2–C12) and related comp...

Aggarwal, S. G. and Kawamura, K.: Molecular distributions and stable carbon isotopic compositions of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds in aerosols from Sapporo, Japan: Implications for photochemical aging during long-range atmospheric transport, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D14301, doi:10.1029/2007JD009365, 2008.; Andreae, M. O., Atlas, E., Cachier, H., Cofer III, W. R., Harris, G. W., Helas, G., Koppmann, R., Lacaux, J...

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Different Contact Angle Distributions for Heterogeneous Ice Nuclea...

By: B. Wang; C. Hoose; Y. Wang; X. Liu

Description: State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG), Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China. In order to investigate the impact of different treatments for the contact angle (Α) in heterogeneous ice nucleating properties of natural dust and black carbon (BC) particles, we implement the classical-nucleation-theory-based parameterization of heterogeneous ice ...

Abdul-Razzak, H. and Ghan, S. J.: A parameterization of aerosol activation: 2. Multiple aerosol types, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 105, 6837–6844, doi:10.1029/1999JD901161, 2000.; Ansmann, A., Tesche, M., Althausen, D., Müller, D., Seifert, P., Freudenthaler, V., Heese, B., Wiegner, M., Pisani, G., Knippertz, P., and Dubovik, O.: Influence of Saharan dust on cloud glaciation in southern Morocco during the Saharan Mineral Du...

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Water Activity in Polyol/Water Systems: New Unifac Parameterizatio...

By: C. Marcolli; Th. Peter

Description: Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Switzerland. Water activities of a series of polyol/water systems were measured with an AquaLab dew point water activity meter at 298 K. The investigated polyols with carbon numbers from n=2–7 are all in liquid state at room temperature and miscible at any molar ratio 5 with water. In aqueous solutions with the same mass concentration, the diols with lower molecular weight lead to lower water act...

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