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Plos One : Serotonin 5-ht Affects Expression of Liver Metabolic En...

By: Julie A. Chowen

Description : The aim of this experiment was to demonstrate the ability of feeding serotonin (5-HT: 5-hydroxytryptamine) precursors to increase 5-HT production during the transition from pregnancy to lactation and the effects this has on maternal energy metabolism in the liver and mammary gland. Pregnant rats (n = 45) were fed one of three diets : I) control (CON), II) CON supplemented with 0.2% 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) or III) CON supplemented with 1.35% L-tryptophan...

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Plos One : Bmi1 Polycomb Group Protein Acts as a Master Switch for...

By: Natasha Kyprianou

Description : For advanced prostate cancer (CaP), the progression of tumors to the state of chemoresistance and paucity of knowledge about the mechanism of chemoresistance are major stumbling blocks in the management of this disease. Here, we provide compelling evidence that BMI1 polycomb group protein and a stem cell factor plays a crucial role in determining the fate of tumors vis-a`-vis chemotherapy. We show that progressive increase in the levels of BMI1 occurs durin...

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Plos One : Hyaluronan and N-erc, Volume 8

By: Konradin Metze

Description : A two-step model using hyaluronan and N-ERC/mesothelin predicts mesothelioma with high specificity. This method can be performed on the first available effusion and could be a useful adjunct to the morphological diagnosis of mesothelioma.

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Plos One : Physical Activity in South Asians ; an In-depth Qualita...

By: Jerson Laks

Description : Attempts at promoting physical activity in people of South Asian origin need to take account of the social context of people’s lives and the external motivators that encourage them to engage in physical activity. Undertaking group based physical activity is important and can be facilitated through religious, community, friendship or family networks. Role models may also prove particularly helpful.

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Plos One : Incidence and Risk Factors for Placenta Accreta, Volume 7

By: Hamid Reza Baradaran

Description : Women with both a prior caesarean delivery and placenta praevia have a high incidence of placenta accreta/ increta/percreta. There is a need to maintain a high index of suspicion of abnormal placental invasion in such women and preparations for delivery should be made accordingly.

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Plos One : Control Centrality and Hierarchical Structure in Comple...

By: Yamir Moreno

Description : We introduce the concept of control centrality to quantify the ability of a single node to control a directed weighted network. We calculate the distribution of control centrality for several real networks and find that it is mainly determined by the network’s degree distribution. We show that in a directed network without loops the control centrality of a node is uniquely determined by its layer index or topological position in the underlying hierarchical ...

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Plos One : Group Behavioural Responses of Atlantic Salmon Salmo Sa...

By: Josep V. Planas

Description : Understanding species-specific flight behaviours is essential in developing methods of guiding fish spatially, and requires knowledge on how groups of fish respond to aversive stimuli. By harnessing their natural behaviours, the use of physical manipulation or other potentially harmful procedures can be minimised. We examined the reactions of sea-caged groups of 50 salmon (13316364 g) to short-term exposure to visual or acoustic stimuli. In light experiment...

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Plos One : Publication Bias in Laboratory Animal Research ; a Surv...

By: Erik Von Elm

Description : Context : Publication bias jeopardizes evidence-based medicine, mainly through biased literature syntheses. Publication bias may also affect laboratory animal research, but evidence is scarce. Objectives : To assess the opinion of laboratory animal researchers on the magnitude, drivers, consequences and potential solutions for publication bias. And to explore the impact of size of the animals used, seniority of the respondent, working in a for-profit organi...

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Plos One : Sall4 is Transiently Expressed in the Caudal Wolffian D...

By: Christoph Englert

Description : The kidney, the metanephros, is formed by reciprocal interactions between the metanephric mesenchyme and the ureteric bud, the latter of which is derived from the Wolffian duct that elongates in the rostral-to-caudal direction. Sall1 expressed in the metanephric mesenchyme is essential for ureteric bud attraction in kidney development. Sall4, another member of the Sall gene family, is required for maintenance of embryonic stem cells and establishment of ind...

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Plos One : Genetic Characterization of the Drosophilabirt-hogg- Du...

By: Helen White-cooper

Description : Folliculin (FLCN) is a conserved tumor suppressor gene whose loss is associated with the human Birt-Hogg-Dube´ (BHD) syndrome. However, its molecular functions remain largely unknown. In this work, we generated a Drosophila BHD model through genomic deletion of the FLCN gene (DBHD2). The DBHD mutant larvae grew slowly and stopped development before pupation, displaying various characteristics of malnutrition. We found the growth delay was sensitive to the n...

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Plos One : Effects of Resveratrol in Pregnancy Using Murine Models...

By: Cees Oudejans

Description : Preeclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction (FGR) contribute significantly to fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Although the causes of PE and FGR are not fully understood, both conditions are known to be associated with impaired uterine artery blood flow. Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in a number of plants, has been shown to induce relaxation of uterine arteries in vitro as well as improve many pathological conditions associated with PE and F...

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Plos One : Optical Detection and Virotherapy of Live Metastatic Tu...

By: Nancy M. Sawtell

Description : Metastatic tumor cells in body fluids are important targets for treatment, and critical surrogate markers for evaluating cancer prognosis and therapeutic response. Here we report, for the first time, that live metastatic tumor cells in blood samples from mice bearing human tumor xenografts and in blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with cancer were successfully detected using a tumor cell-specific recombinant vaccinia virus (VACV). In contra...

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Plos One : Increased Urothelial Cell Apoptosis and Chronic Inflamm...

By: Praveen Thumbikat

Description : Chronic inflammation, urothelial cell apoptosis and impairment of barrier function of urothelial cells might contribute to recurrent UTI in women.

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Plos One : Controlling Antimicrobial Resistance Through Targeted, ...

By: Jianqing Xu

Description : Vaccination has proven effective in controlling many infectious diseases. However, differential effectiveness with regard to pathogen genotype is a frequent reason for failures in vaccine development. Often, insufficient immune response is induced to prevent infection by the diversity of existing serotypes present in pathogenic populations of bacteria. These vaccines that target a too narrow spectrum of serotypes do not offer sufficient prevention of infect...

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Plos One : Amyr is a Novel Negative Regulator of Amylovoran Produc...

By: Ching-hong Yang

Description : In this study, we attempted to understand the role of an orphan gene amyR in Erwinia amylovora, a functionally conserved ortholog of ybjN in Escherichia coli, which has recently been characterized. Amylovoran, a high molecular weight acidic heteropolymer exopolysaccharide, is a virulent factor of E. amylovora. As reported earlier, amylovoran production in an amyR knockout mutant was about eight-fold higher than that in the wild type (WT) strain of E. amylov...

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Plos One : a Repeat Sequence Causes Competition of Cole1-type Plas...

By: Fenfei Leng

Description : Plasmid pSW200 from Pantoea stewartii contains 41 copies of 15-bp repeats and has a replicon that is homologous to that of ColE1. Although deleting the repeats (pSW207) does not change the copy number and stability of the plasmid. The plasmid becomes unstable and is rapidly lost from the host when a homoplasmid with the repeats (pSW201) is present. Deleting the repeats is found to reduce the transcriptional activity of RNAIp and RNAIIp by about 30%, indicat...

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Plos One : Reference Gene Selection for Real-time Quantitative Pcr...

By: Rolf Muller

Description : The study of uterine gene expression patterns is valuable for understanding the biological and molecular mechanisms that occur during embryo implantation. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is an extremely sensitive technique that allows for the precise quantification of mRNA abundance: however, selecting stable reference genes suitable for the normalization of qRT-PCR data is required to avoid the misinterpretation of experimental results and erroneou...

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Plos One : Global Epigenetic Changes Induced by Swi2, Volume 7

By: Brian P. Chadwick

Description : The use of neomycin-resistant genes revolutionized mammalian transfections even though questions linger about efficacy. In this study, we have demonstrated that selection of neomycin-resistant cells results in survival of only those cells that have undergone epigenetic changes, and therefore, data obtained using these resistant genes as selection markers need to be cautiously evaluated.

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Plos One : Histological Evaluation of the Biocompatibility of Poly...

By: Jeongmin Hong

Description : In general polyurea crosslinked silica aerogel (PCSA) was well tolerated as a subcutaneous and an intramuscular implant in the Sprague-Dawley rat with a maximum incubation time of twenty months. In some cases a thin fibrous capsule surrounded the aerogel implant and was interpreted as a normal response to foreign material. No noticeable toxicity was found in the tissues surrounding the implants nor in distant organs. Comparison was made with control rats wi...

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Plos One : Role of Activated Rac1, Volume 8

By: Masuko Ushio-fukai

Description : Angiogenesis is a well-established target in anti-cancer therapy. Although vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)- mediated angiogenesis apparently requires the Rho GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42, the relevant mechanisms are unclear. Here, we determined that activated Rac1/Cdc42 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells could decrease p53 protein levels and increase VEGF secretion to promote proliferation and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)....

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